Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Improving Schizophrenia With Mental Illness - 1591 Words

Improving Schizophrenia with Risperdal Mental illness affects millions of people every day. One of the most debilitating forms of mental illness is schizophrenia. The Oxford dictionary defines schizophrenia as; A long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation (2015). The symptoms experienced by the patient impair functioning on social and cognitive levels. Due to the severe effects of the illness, it is important to pursue treatment in an attempt to stabilize the patient and to control his†¦show more content†¦Characteristics of Schizophrenia â€Å"Schizophrenia† is a relatively new label of an illness that has been identified throughout history since ancient Egyptian times. Prior to being named in 1911 by Eugen Bleuler, reports of illness with similar symptoms were being referred to as â€Å"dementia praecox†, meaning dementia in early life (The Internet Mental Health Initiative, 2015). Bleuler questioned the claim that this illness was a result of mental deterioration and instead believed â€Å"schizophrenia led to a heightened consciousness of memories and experiences† (Sussex Publishers, LLC., 2015). Bleuler combined Greek words â€Å"schizo† (split) and â€Å"phrene† (mind) to more accurately describe what he had observed in patients. He did not believe that the mind split into parts or personalities, but more so that the mind would split away from reality and existence into an altered state (Sussex Publishers, LLC., 2015). The DSM- IV categorizes these states based on the expressed symptoms as paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and undifferentiated (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although the symptoms can be easily categorized, diagnosing schizophrenia is much more difficult. This is due to the spectrum of severity and if the client projects positive or negative symptoms. In the case of schizophrenia, positive symptoms are the behaviors that are added to or

Monday, December 23, 2019

Stereotypes And Gender Roles Of Women Essay - 1522 Words

A stereotype can be defined as â€Å"a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.† Stereotypes are preconceived notions about a group of people. Gender roles are â€Å"the public image of being a particular gender that a person presents to others.† These roles are also known as the social norms that dictate the types of behaviors that are deemed acceptable, appropriate or desirable for people of the two genders. Both stereotypes and gender roles of women (and of men) have spanned the centuries. When looking at medieval texts as well as a Classical Greek text, readers are shown how women, especially, are viewed by society as well as the role they are given. During these times women were typically stereotyped to be less dominant than men and their gender roles were very narrowly focused on life inside the home but in some literature pieces that wasn t the case. Stereotypes reflect social attitudes about the kind of hum an being women (and men) are. Stereotypes reflect a person’s character and special nature. Women during Medieval times were extremely unequal to men in all aspects of life. Women were less educated, not entitled to a political vote and were not able to choose whether or not to marry or to have children. It seems as if women, when they became wives, were almost treated as children by their husbands. Women were told what to do, what to say and basically how to live their life by their â€Å"superiors,† men. However,Show MoreRelatedGender Roles And Stereotypes Of Women1675 Words   |  7 Pagesoccasional generic, sexist, joke, but these jokes and phrases may be more harmful than they seem. Gender roles influence the way people see the world, everything from parenting roles to places in the workforce are affected by how the public perceives gender. This is why those simple ‘jokes’ are so problematic. They are symptomatic of the toxic way the world sees gen der. Gender roles affect men and women which leaves no one at the winning side, and at this point in history, no one at fault. TeenagersRead MoreGender Roles And Stereotypes Of Women981 Words   |  4 Pagesmale dominancy. Women’s wisdom and talent goes unappreciated and unnoticeable as the series progresses. Women are portrayed as either the sidekicks of the male characters or an instrument in which men use to fill their sexual needs. The women in the show are often dependent on the man’s advice and supposedly sound reasoning. The message from the show symbolizes that in a society without men, women would be emotionally deprived and crazed, but with men they can develop a self-actualization that is notRead MoreWomen s Roles And Gender Stereotypes Essay1154 Words   |  5 PagesWomen’s Roles The Simpsons is a TV show that airs on the Fox network. During the fifth season, in an episode called Lisa vs. Malibu Stacy, Lisa challenges the makers of the Malibu Stacy doll to create a less sexist doll. The original creator of Malibu Stacy teams up with Lisa to create Lisa Lionheart to create a positive influence for young girls. This episode raised a lot of questions regarding gender roles and stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are prominent in today’s life style. Per gender stereotypesRead MoreWhy And How Gender Stereotypes1654 Words   |  7 PagesWhy and How Gender Stereotypes in Advertisements are Challenged Traditional gender roles were constructed based on devotion to cultural value as well as social construct based geographical placement. Males were usually associated and expected to express masculinity while females on the other hand had to express femininity (Ickes). The gender roles have been preserved for too long and it has become almost like a permanent component of a society—like a body part itself, rather than a constructed normsRead MoreGender Stereotypes In Mulan1673 Words   |  7 Pagesthe media portrays is often what is perceived. Instead of using the media to strengthen stereotypes among people, the media should be used to stop stereotyping once and for all. While gender stereotypes do unfortunately exist, representations of gender in pop culture can have a positive impact by allowing society to see these stereotypes being broken. In the Disney classic, Mulan, several gender stereotypes are portrayed throughout the film. Mulan, the main character, faces several expectationsRead MoreTeaching In A Twenty First Century Society, The Expectation1140 Words   |  5 PagesTeaching in a twenty first century society, the expectation for gender equality is important to provide the proper exposure, understanding, and educate individuals about society’s norms. These expectations that students will need to make acceptable choices for the betterment of their future. Therefore, it is the duty for educators to offer introductions in gender roles, gender stereotypes, and sexism. These are sensitive topics and need to be taught accurately with balanced information and with aRead MoreEssay On Gender Oppression1507 Words   |  7 PagesGender Oppression Nelson Mandela once said, Freedom cannot be achieved unless women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression. What Mandela is trying to convey is that society is being restrained by social norms and gender roles. While today’s society is not as controlled by gender as Mandela’s, women still continue to be oppressed by it. In the reading â€Å"The Cycle of Oppression,† the cycle is explained part by part, and why it is continuous is discovered. The cycle remains continuous becauseRead MoreBefore Diving Into The Current State Of Male Roles In Advertising,1322 Words   |  6 PagesBefore diving into the current state of male roles in advertising, it is necessary to review past gender stereotypes and how they have developed in the past. Looking at advertising through the media from a social determinist standpoint, the existing cultural and social values and progresses are what determine how gender roles are portrayed in media. This would go against the cul tivation theory notion that the media used to portray men and women are what shape our cultural and social ideologiesRead MoreOrganizational Psychology : Gender And Leadership938 Words   |  4 Pagesstereotyping causes of the phenomena studied by organizational psychology underlying. Research on gender and leadership focuses on both college students and executives in various business settings. A common theme concerns the idea that a good leader is model described incompatible male with feminine behavior, sometimes thought of as think-Manager. For example, to provoke some settings pronounced stereotypes. If the expected leadership style of an organization at a given hora direct, exacerbate uncaringRead MoreEssay on Gender Stereotype538 Words   |  3 PagesGender Stereotype According to the writers in chapter, â€Å"Gender Stereotyping And the Media†, gender stereotypes are harmful to men and women. Gender stereotypes set impossible standards for men and women that lead to unhappiness, loneliness and possibly violence towards themselves. Stereotypes affect relationships between a man and a woman. Moreover, stereotypes dictate the behavior of boys and girls that lead to violence. Rather than combating gender stereotypes, our society reinforces

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Is it ethical to expel children carrying drugs or alcohol to school Free Essays

Last year, over â€Å"1000 schoolchildren were suspended, excluded or expelled from New Zealand schools last year for drugs or alcohol-related offences, with the youngest aged 8† (Stuff, 2013). The Ministry of Education released figures showing that one In ten children who had action taken against them in relation to substances in the year 2012, was under 12 years of age (Stuff, 2013). The Education Amendment Act has come under scrutiny as It priorities the right to privacy of students. We will write a custom essay sample on Is it ethical to expel children carrying drugs or alcohol to school or any similar topic only for you Order Now Effectively It means that schools would lose their authority to search and seize narcotics and conduct random drug tests. This, many educationalists argue, would worsen the problem. The ethical Issue that arises In this case amongst others Is whether schools should continue to retain their search and seizure powers or should the privacy of the students be given priority as per the Education Amendment Bill. Another key issue that is begging resolution is the dilemma of whether or not, children found in possession of drugs and alcohol, should be expelled or excluded. Is expulsion of a child found In possession of narcotics in the best Interests of society and the child In question? It is important to also mention that since most of the children procured the absences from a knowing or unknowing adult, should the adult be vicariously responsible for the child take responsibility and face the consequences Instead of letting the child take the fall? Is It not the responsibility of the parent to ensure that children stay away from vices until they are old enough to judge for themselves? Due 1 OFF expulsion and attempt to provide some insight into whether or not it is the best course of action to employ. Thomas Hobbes (1651) proposed the idea that â€Å"in order to flourish, we need a peaceful, cooperative social order† (Reaches Reaches, 2010, p. 0). Hobbes goes on to say that if there were no institutions to enforce order, we would be free to do whatever we wanted. This would eventually lead to a state of perpetual chaos. He has called this state of chaos â€Å"the state of nature† and it’s opposite â€Å"civil state† (Reaches Reaches, 2010). This means that in order to live harmoniously, we must abide by a set of rules that are accepted by everyone and applies to everyone equally. Hobbes was of the opinion that the four basic facts about human life were the reason for the existence of this social contract. He theorized firstly, that each of us requires the same basic things in order to survive, secondly, scarcity is omnipresent and we need to work hard to produce the things we need. Third on the list is the equality of human power (united we stand, divided we fall). Finally, there is limited altruism, which implies that we cannot assume that others will stand down when their interests conflict with ours. Since we do not learn the accepted rules of society on our own, we have schoolteachers and parents who amongst other things teach us how to behave in a socially acceptable manner. School helps us learn to build and maintain relationships. Most importantly attending school empowers us with knowledge to survive in the real world. Take school out of the equation and that leaves Just parents. Now consider the case of a young child who has gotten himself expelled for being curious about his parent’s secret drug stash. Unable to attend school, he might not realize the difference between a Joke and a crime because he is unaware of right and wrong, socially acceptable and unacceptable. He may develop an insecurity employ as he probably feels helpless and is shunned by his parents. These factors might lead him to become a criminal or worse, a drug addict. It is quite obvious that criminals and drug addicts are anti-social elements that need to be removed from the setting. It is safe to say that not all criminals are school dropouts however, most addicted to drugs haven’t been educated about the consequences of substance abuse and are helplessly addicted. The Social Contract Theory maintains that we need a social order in order to flourish. The only way to eliminate most of anti-social elements is to ensure that kids found in possession of drugs or alcohol remain in school to learn how to behave appropriately, and eventually grow up to become conscientious and responsible adults. The theory of Utilitarianism as stated by Reaches Reaches (2010) encompasses three categories. Firstly, actions can be Judged to be right or wrong depending on the consequences it brings about. Secondly, in terms of examining consequences, all that matters is the amount of happiness or unhappiness the action in question creates; person is more important than the other. This means that actions should be Judged as right or wrong depending on the amount of happiness or unhappiness everyone experiences as a consequence. Thus a deduction can be made that Utilitarian are essentially consequentialness, as they determine the ethical value based on an answer to the question â€Å"what would happen as a result of doing it? † (Reaches Reaches, 2010, p. 111). Utilitarianism is divided into two categories namely, Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Act Utilitarian believe that an action must be Judged by the consequences it causes (Reaches Reaches, 2010, p. 22). Rule Utilitarian believe that an action must be Judged on the consequence of the action becoming the norm that everyone lived by (Reaches Reaches, 2010, p. 18-119). Therefore it can be said that Utilitarianism Judges actions based on whether they yield the best consequences and happiness for everyone or not. Upon application of the Utilitarian approach to the issue of expulsion, the action of excluding children who are found in possession of narcotics or alcohol would produce two possible consequences. Firstly, because the child has been expelled, he ay lose interest in studying altogether. It is a proven fact that schools provide a protective environment that shields people from drug abuse (Bell, 2013). If they are unable to stay in that protected environment before entering the proverbial ‘real world’ there is a chance that they may be negatively influenced and resort to a life of crime, drug abuse and other anti-social behavior. The second consequence of one child caught in possession of drugs being expelled could serve as an example to the other children. This might cause them to refrain from coming in contact with drugs earning punishment. Although the second consequence appears to be feasible, as many children would benefit from one child being expelled and being made an example of, it is not guaranteed that other children will not indulge in drugs and alcohol outside school. Also, going by Rule Utilitarianism, if expelling children became the norm, crime, unemployment and illiteracy rates would rise and this in turn would affect the entire nation negatively. Therefore, Act and Rule Utilitarian would agree that expelling children found in possession of narcotics would be very unethical, as it loud cause much more unhappiness than happiness. Also, since Utilitarian believe that everyone’s happiness is equal, and that motives and intentions don’t matter, causing unhappiness to one child and to the general population in the long run by expelling him from school is something they would advocate against. In conclusion, I have explored the idea of a Social Contract and the Utilitarian approach in terms of the case to determine whether or not expelling children found to be in possession of narcotics or alcohol is ethical. Taking into consideration the Social Contract, and the possible consequences of Act and Rule based Utilitarianism I have deduced that expulsion or exclusion from school is not the best course of action. In order to suit everyone’s interests, it is crucial that the kids remain in school where they have the opportunity to learn about narcotics and socially acceptable behavior in a controlled and protected environment. After all, they are children, unable to distinguish between right and wrong, and in this case, it is imperative that Children are the future of any country and it is our moral duty to ensure that all sections we take have their best interests at heart. How to cite Is it ethical to expel children carrying drugs or alcohol to school, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Great Expectation Essay Summary Example For Students

Great Expectation Essay Summary The novel, Great Expectations, presents the story of a young boy growing up and becoming a gentleman. He must learn to appreciate people for who they are, not shun them for who they aren’t. Nicknamed Pip, Philip Pirrip, the main character, goes through many changes in his personality, as he is influenced by various people. Pip experiences tough times as a boy and a young man, but at the end he has In the beginning, Pip, an orphan, considers himself to be a common laboring boy, but he has a desire to improve his station in life. He is raised by his sister, and her husband, Joe Gargery. Then Pip meets Estella, the adopted daughter of Miss Havisham, an old lady who is bitter and eccentric. Estella taunts Pip and is very cruel to him, but he still falls in love with her. Miss Havisham is teaching Estella to hurt men, because she herself was deserted by her fianc on her wedding day. One day, Mr. Jaggers, a lawyer, reveals to Pip, that there are â€Å"Great Expectations† for Pip. He is given the money to become a gentleman and receive a good education; he assumes that his benefactor is Miss Havisham. In London, Pip makes many new, high-society friends. When Joe Gargery comes to visit Pip in his new way of life, Pip is ashamed of Joe, because he is a commoner. At this time, Pip is around twenty years old. Estella is still the center of his attractions. When she comes!to London, he meets her, but she tries to warn Pip to stay away from her because she might hurt his feelings. She is being kind to him in the only way that she knows how. Around the same time, Pip receives a letter telling him that Mrs. Joe Gargery had died. A man from Pip’s past steps out, an ex-convict, named Magwitch, who he had fed many years ago; this man is his true benefactor. Pip finally knows the truth about this man. Magwitch is Estella’s father, and Mr. Jagger’s housekeeper is Estella’s mother. A short time later, Estella is wed to Bentley Drummle, but she is very unhappy. Pip falls ill, and Joe comes to take care of him. While he is being nursed back to health, Pip starts to appreciate Joe and begins to look past the fact that he is â€Å"common.† He receives the news that Miss Havisham is dead. Pip visits Joe’s home and is told that Joe and Biddy, Pip’s friend, are married. Pip then returns to London and continues his life for eleven more years. Pip finally goes back to Joe’s house, to find that Joe and Biddy have a son, and they have named him Pip. During that last visit, he returns to Miss Havisham’s old run-down home. There he meets Estella, grown into a woman, her husband dead. There, Estella asks Pip to for!give her, he does, and all is well. So the story ends, with grown Pip and a changed Estella both at peace In conclusion, I thought that this was a very well written book. It took me a while to get into it and understand the plot, but now I see that Dickens wrote Great Expectations with a very complex plot and well described characters. From Joe Gargery to Miss Havisham, I really got to know the characters as if they were people. I would describe this book as a delightful story with a sprinkle of mystery and a handful of romance, with a pinch of fun all mixed in.Bibliography:

Friday, November 29, 2019

Killers/on the Sidewalk Bledding Essay free essay sample

â€Å"On the sidewalk Bleeding† and â€Å"Killers† These books, â€Å"killers†, written by O. E. Middleton and â€Å"On the side walk Bleeding†, written by Evan Hunter portrays an important idea on how stereotyping corrupts society. This essay will discuss the negative affects stereotyping has on society and why stereotyping is a very important issue to be aware abut. In this essay there will also be example from the texts where the theme is clearly shown A significant event that reveals that the negative effects of stereotyping is in â€Å"Killers† and the quote . . . â€Å"They’re killers alright, agreed the man . . . he fumbled for a cigarette, fed it into his mouth. â€Å"This show the negative effect of stereotyping on society because he is saying the hawk is the killer when al it is doing is what the Hawk needs to for basic survival, which also shows the man, is being hypercritical when he just tried to murder the hawk and he is smoking a cigarette and smoking kills. We will write a custom essay sample on Killers/on the Sidewalk Bledding Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In â€Å"On the side walk bleeding the effect is show when â€Å"He had a terrible pain when the knife had torn across his body, then sudden relief when the blade was pulled away. He had heard the voice saying, â€Å"That’s for you, Royal†Ã¢â‚¬ . This quote shows the negative of stereotyping because the person who stabbed Andy referred to him as â€Å"Royal†, which means that the person was only stabbing the jacket not necessarily Andy because of all the destruction and conflict the gang has caused, he probably only stabbed Andy just because he was wearing the jacket. These to quotes show the negative effect on society because Children learn these stereotypes and apply them carelessly through the rest of their lives without any knowledge of how to correctly assess a person’s values. Stereotyping can have massive, negative effects on national and international relations, which could consequently lead to world trade being affected or even the outbreak of war. A significant event that shows the effect that reveals that why stereotyping is a very important issue is in â€Å"killers† at the end of the story there are quotes that says. Only when the braver boy, edging closer, gave her a well-aimed blow to the head, was she set free† and â€Å" Imagine going on living all that time like that†. At the start of the text the woman labeled the country people inferior to them and that they are living in poverty, which is shown in the quote. â€Å"There are plenty of new cowsheds thought,’ joked the man. ‘Where do you t hink all or city milk comes from? † These quotes show that stereotyping is an important issue because it shows that the stereotypes do not show what the people are actually like. The woman did not know what it would be like to live in the country, all she did was take the appearance of the cowsheds and the old road and immediately stereotyped the country and labeled it as a horrible place to live and the man joked about houses and cowsheds just because it is a different lifestyle to what there lifestyle is like in the city. In â€Å"On the sidewalk Bleeding† the effect that reveals that stereotyping is an important issue is shown in the quotes. â€Å"A Royal Huh? ’ he said. She looked at the cop and, very quietly, she said, ‘his name is Andy. And â€Å"He took out his black pad, and flipped it open to a blank page. ‘A Royal,’ he said†. These show how stereotyping is important issue because it reflects the view of the people who are underneath the stereotype, the cop did not record Andy as who he was, but recorded him as what he was, this shows us that the cop had stereotyped him and assumed that this was just the resul t of another typical gang fight instead taken care into investigating the murder of Andy, Andy would have been stabbed if he wasn’t wearing the jacket. In my opinion the Family in the car from â€Å"killers† and the Cop from â€Å"On the sidewalk Bleeding† acted harshly towards the country community/Andy and shows me that the city folk/Cop are not aware of stereotyping or the effects it has on society. In conclusion Stereotyping has a negative effect on society and can have destructive effects on civilization. Stereotyping cause the real personalities and aspects of people to be ignored by society because of the countless lies and assumption that have been in place for decades. In my opinion, Consequently, an attempt to exterminate the use of stereotypes should be in place. Stereotyping can be taught in schools with exercises that show that it is an important issue and the negative impact that stereotypes inflict. People should actively train themselves to fend off stereotypical assumptions as to live more freely and accept others more willingly. By Lachlan McDowall Year 11 English.

Monday, November 25, 2019

The Perfect Storm essays

The Perfect Storm essays In the book The Perfect Storm by Sebastian Junger, the Satori rescue was depicted very accurately. While searching on the Internet, I found many instances where other people talked about the information Junger gave the reader. Also, there were many pictures that helped me to see what Junger was writing about in his book. I was very impressed with how well he was able to tell the story, while keeping all of the facts in tact. Many writers tend to play with words in a way that will lead the reader to believe something far from what really happened and far from the truth. Junger was a very impressive writer in The Perfect Storm. He was able to tell the story like it truly happened, while not bending the words of others. This made for a very accurate and good book. With the story of the Satori rescue, Junger added numerous personal accounts from the people who were involved. By doing so, he was able to draw the reader further into the story and help them fully understand what was happening. Also, it helped to put a timeline of the incident and introduce the reader to what a storm can be like when on a boat on the water. Junger gave the background of what the fisherman had been through before and how this specific storm related to them. He was able to give the reader history of what kind of storms the boat and fisherman had been through in the previous years and what they were used to going through on their fishing trips. Another important aspect of the book was the logs, broadcasts, and radio transmissions that were added into Jungers writing. There were personal logs that were written by the fisherman. This alone shows the reader of how much was researched and found by Junger before he began writing. The logs were explaining what the fisherman were going through at the time of the storm and what state of mind they were in at the time. The broadcasts from the weather service were also put in the book. By doing...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Sentimental Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Sentimental Violence - Essay Example He insinuates to the fact that the violence and oppression of the superior is not acknowledged in a legal system that is constructed according the ideals of these superior people. Indeed for Wright violence of the superior or the dominant is not violence. Rather it is a kind of oppression, because it may underlie, in a disguised form, the existing social system. Such a system then is established only to serve the interest of the dominants and to deprive the dominated of their rights. It may prevail over the whole system visibly in the forms of law and punishment. Even if the convict appears to be a member of the dominant group, then he is characterized as a punisher. In both forms, either it is disguised or visible, the underlying dehumanization gives birth to the violence in a reflective form in the sense that they give the society what they receive from it. Wright notes that since the dominant white cannot but exploit the black, they need to instill the inferiority complex into a black’s sentiment in order to retain the access to the pool of cheap black labor. Mr. Dalton employs the black young people but he as well as his society build a â€Å"blank wall† between them and the black. As a real estate baron, Mr. Dalton conjures up his whiteness -before Bigger- terrifies, oppresses sentimentally and enrages him to muster his benefit of the black. The built-in construct of Mr. Dalton’s family is such that it forces Bigger to perpetually rethink about the propriety of his manner in the family. Playing as a black on the line of white-expectation is his only choice that the white society leaves for him. He dearly wants the job in Mr. Dalton’s house. Yet, he cannot but admonish himself for acting so subserviently and answering Dalton’s questions slavishly in â€Å"â€Å"yessuh† and â€Å"nawsuh†. Such dilemma makes his stay in Dalton’s terribly uncomfortable. Mrs. Dalton also similarly behaves with him. She implies that he should do

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Electronic commerce purchase behavior Assignment

Electronic commerce purchase behavior - Assignment Example And these are to help to guide and provide important boundaries within which consumer motivations can be defined and utilised in discussions relating to online purchasing behaviours. Like most other fields, the field of online sales is generalised and critiqued appropriately through the segmentation of the markets and the identification of various interest groups and classes in the online buying population (Wu & Chou, 2011). The study indicates that databases are created as a means of providing links and procedures for the conduct of research and affairs in a given organisation and market in order to provide better and more predictable approaches and methods for data collection. There are two main variables that define the repurchase choices and decisions of people who purchase products and services on line: online relationship quality and perceived website quality (Zhanga, Fang, Wei, Ramsey, & McColee, 2011). These two variables culminate in perceived vendor expertise that builds a perceived reputation on the minds of consumers. That makes them repeat customers and clients in the organization. On the other hand, the risk and uncertainty provide a rationale for purchase whilst the intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation of the purchase lays the impetus for utilitarian value that guides purchase (Chiu, Wang, Fang, & Huang, 2014). In order to study consumer behaviour in e-commerce, some theorists identify that there are two main approaches to study and identify important factors that define the way consumer behaviour. The first is the theory of planned behaviour which relates to the actions and processes of previous e-commerce users (Del Bosque & Crespo, 2011). The second is the theory of technological acceptance which involves the new user who identifies the best approaches and systems that are used to guide the conduct of such persons (Del Bosque & Crespo, 2011). It was identified that third party support

Monday, November 18, 2019

Newtons Laws of Motion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Newtons Laws of Motion - Essay Example Several things are needed to be defined to understand this law. Firstly we talk about inertia. Inertia is an ability of matter to resist any change in its motion. For example when a person is sitting in a bus, he is moving with the same speed as that of bus. If brakes are applied suddenly by the bus driver, it is the inertia of a person's body that pulls him forward. The second thing that is important to understand is the concept of Net forces. A net force is the vector sum of all the forces being applied on a body. For example if two forces, each of 10 N, are applied on a body, one from the top and one from bottom then the body will not move in any direction. Since these forces will cancel out each other's effect and the net force on the body will be zero. Now if an object experiences any net force greater than zero it will change its state. A very common day example of this can be a car moving on an empty road. If you turn off the engine, the car will move to some distance and then stop. What is the reason behind this The car when moving is experiencing a force from its engine and some other forces such as friction from the road and air resistance. The car needs sufficient driving force from engine to counter the effects of air resistance and road friction. When the engine is turned off, the car will move because of the momentum it gathered due to its motion for some distance but a net force opposite to its direction of movement are being applied by road and air which will slow it down and will ultimately stop it. Same goes with a cold drink glass in a glass holder kept in a moving car. If a car is moving with the speed of 70 km/hr without any speed breaker and considering that the road is all smooth, the cold drink will not spill out of the glass but it will spill out in case of application of sudden brakes. The reason is simply that when the car was moving with a constant velocity, the drink in the glass was also moving with the same speed and in the same direction as that of car. But when brakes were applied suddenly and car stopped the drink still continued its motion which causes it to spill out of the glass because the force was applied to the wheel of the cars to stop them and not to the coffee. So, when no external force was applied to the drink it continued its motion till it spilled. In our everyday life we do many things that are good examples of First law of motion. Such as a carpenter or a wood worker: when he feels that the head of hammer has loosen its place from the wood of hammer, he hold the hammer from the middle and bangs its bottom on a hard surface to tighten it to its place. The phenomenon behind this is when he moves hammer at a fast speed downwards, every part of hammer is moving with it, but when the bottom hits the surface, still the head of hammer is moving with the same speed downwards and due to this it fixes itself on hammer. (Henderson T. 2004) Newton's Second Law of

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Three Factors That Form Individual Ethics Philosophy Essay

Three Factors That Form Individual Ethics Philosophy Essay Ethics is the division of study commerce with suitable course of an achievement for man. It is the study of correct and wrong in individual endeavours. At a more primary level, it is the process where we categorize our values and practise them. Ethics in the field of philosophy means that the revise and assessment of human behaviour in the glow of moral theories. Moral theories might be observed additionally as the model of behaviour that human beings have built for themselves or as the remains of responsibilities and functions that a demanding society needs of its associates. Ethics can also be generally be defined as the principles of morally acceptable conduct of individuals. Ethics also means an individuals personal beliefs about right and wrong behaviours. Ethics is a must for human life. It is our indications of making our mind up a course of action. Without it, our battles would be haphazard and pointless. There can be no technique to work in the direction of an objective as there would be no method to choose between a never ending numbers of objectives. Yet with an ethical model, we might be not capable to practise our goals with the prospect of success. To the quantity which a realistic ethical model is taken, we are proficient to perfectly classify our goals and battles to accomplish our most imperative values. Any mistake in our ethics will ease our ability to be successful in our endeavours. A suitable base of ethics needs a standard of significance to which all objectives and battles can be balanced to. This model is our own lives, and the pleasure which makes them liveable. This is our vital model of importance, where the goal in which an ethical man must aim at all times. It is turn up at by an assessment of mans nature, and identify his strange needs. A structure of ethics must additionally consist of not only emergency circumstances, but the usual choices we make continuously. It must consist of our relations to others, and identify their importance not only to our physical endurance, but to our interests and happiness. Furthermore, ethics is also known as private set of values used by a person to direct their actions, and to be aware with any responsibility.   Ethics are not intention, but are slanted to the individual.   Ethics are a constantly developing policy of behaviour charge upon situations and the life practices of the individual. According to Mary, 1956, ethics are the relative to our observation of authenticity, and are also based in the lead of a detailed viewpoint. We  as human beings, the moral command are classified by the individuals.   It has been started when the children are being skilled with suitable behaviours based on common norms and parental significances.   These norms and values are being used to grant a structure for the progression of the individual values. Therefore, there has no perceptions can seek to define ethics.   It is not viable for any one of the persons to claim total common awareness and subjectivity.   In addition, human beings are not all-powerful and dependable.   Some of them may go all-out for the excellence, but our very humanness will certify that accomplishment is not attained. Meanwhile, it is agreed that ethics are the persons set of values, whereby they must not be used to create broad assertions of true or false without tolerate for disagreement and the argument.   Ethics have to be used to help each of the human beings to identify our own life so that we live as stated to the top forms that we, as individuals, advised to.   Ethics and loyalty to our standards are the guiding principle which we use to review our battles.   It is an appearance of self-measurement of development or of obligation to the perfects which we struggle towards. The factors in our usual life may give good reason for some action, or take the edge off its harshness; we are still dependable for our choices.   Choices need to be investigated before an enlightened choice is being made. Ethics need to be understood usually at times of predicament or an internalized modification.   This happens because a belief is been shown to be incorrect or when the certainty fails to take into reflection a very specific set of situations.   At those times, the entity should realistically view on their certainty, and make an internal inquiry as to the knowledge which had been produced by them.   Considerations are needed to verify if theres a new set of values is required, or if active values need only been modified to reflect those situation. Ethics must not be used to ditch one set of narrow faiths adjacent to another.   The split created by such traditions becomes one of severe obedience to a set of precise values, and teaches prejudice for variations in another set of significances. Ethics must not be followed sightless nor should share morals which can be spoken out the ethical norms for all those individuals. In example, where this has been happened, the loads have roller blindly followed like sheep, following the firm point of views of a selected numbers.   Ethics must not interrupt in the lead of the private lives of any other individuals who is not hurting anyone. Norms First factor that forms individual ethics is norms. Norms are a useful guideline for the social behaviour. It has to be made active before they can point the behaviour when the persons are in a situation of deindividuation. They only see themselves in the name of group individuality, and their behaviours are probable to be guided by group norms alone. Norm of social reciprocity expresses us to return to other services, good qualities and kindness they offer us. The door in the face technique is used in norms as thats not all technique, and in advertising the peak of the line. Norm of social commitments also expresses us to maintain with our promises as this norm is being used in the low-ball technique. In addition, norm of obedience directs us in the direction of submission to the abilities. Milgram explain this agreement in his studies where contributors had to deliver frights to suffering victims. It is also has the possibility to resist being influenced by norms. People who display their reactance by fighting against the fear to their liberty of action when they find norms were out of place. The attitudes and norms normally work simultaneously to manipulate behaviour either directly or indirectly. As stated in the theory of planned behaviour, purposes are the function of three factors which is manners about behaviour, common norms applicable to the behaviour and awareness of organized over the behaviour. Therefore, when the thoughts and norms disagree, their pressure on behaviour will depend on their relative convenience. There are 3 personal experience examples of norms as stated below: Thank you is an example of norms. This is expected when we as human being express appreciation for helpful, supportive and kind manners. We express sympathy by saying sorry to hear this when we hear about another individuals difficulty in any situation. Failing to express sympathy, might result in the view that the person is thoughtless. In our daily life, we should help the people who had helped us. You wish to take annual leave to attend relatives wedding and you suppose to work on the day. You asked your colleague to cover for you. And you may be expected to agree similar request from your colleague in future. Belief Belief is defined as the mental mind-set that some intentions are true. In most of the given intention, most of the individual either has or be short of the mental attitude that it is true. Therefore, there is none of any central point ground between the occurrences of nonappearance of a belief. For an example, in the case of gods, most of the individuals either have the belief that at least one god in a number of sorts is real or they lack any such belief. In addition, belief is different from judgment, which is a mental act that involves arriving at an ending about an intention and consequently creating a belief among the individuals. Whereby, belief is the mental thoughts that some intention is correct rather than wrong. Decision after believing in something is the evaluation of an intention as realistic, fair, confusing and etc. It is because one type of character is not necessary for a belief to be continuously and intentionally parented. A belief that thought a god exists often depends on a few other beliefs which some individuals have not intentionally considered. There are a few examples below based on my personal experience: There were a few situations where I pray to God for something good to happen and it eventually happened and I gained success through that. I started doing this after seeing my parents doing so. It has become a belief for me as I see what ever my parents pray for, will somehow come to reality one day. The same thing started happening to me. Since that my belief on God has become stronger. This clearly shows that a belief is a mental thought for some intentions to be correct. The other example which I can give for belief is in the method of rising up children. I grew up with the care and guidance of my parents. When I was young, I have already started believing that I would be a successful man in future just like my parents because I believed that they would put me in correct path of life for me to gain success. I followed the exact path and I gained success just like how I thought and believed that it would happen one day. I believed my life path showed by my parents and here where I am today with good job and education. My belief has lead to a realistic in my life. Values Values can be defined as the foundation of beliefs of the persons which guide and encourage their attitudes and also actions. A few of the most essential ethical values are truthfulness, commitment, integrity and equality. Bear in mind that not all are ethical or moral values. Therefore, a number of non-ethical values which are considered to be the ethical impartial since they are neither principled nor not principled whereby it inspires behaviour are wealth, status, happiness, attractiveness, taste, comfort and success. These are ethic impartial because there is nothing right with these principles in and of themselves, but how one attains these and what one carries out with these can be right or wrong. Principle values are believed to always take priority over non-ethical morals. Individual moral values are significant in determining principled behaviour, but it is not concentrate on important theoretical ethics predominantly when there is a variation between our individual moral po int and our responsibilities to the patient. As for me, many beliefs have changed to values. For instance being caring towards others has become a value because I believed that if I care for a person, I will be cared in return. This statement was brought by my parents where they will keep reminding me to be caring to people around us. This principle or quality that we hold guide the way we live our lives and also decisions we make. It is really worthy to make this belief a value in our life as we build good behaviour in ourselves by being caring and helpful towards people. This actually is inherited and for sure we will bring this value down to the next upcoming generations. In another situation, the change of the belief to a value can be explained through another experience of mine. Since I was a teenager, I have the belief that it is important to spend quality time with our family. We believed that when we spend time together, a lot of problems can be solved. For instance, if any of us have headache, or stressful due to a work or studies, we will mingle and have a close conversation or do some other activities with our family members and that eventually reduces the headache and stress. In other word, it can be said that we help each other to ease our difficulties. Therefore, I believed very much that spending time together with our family can make us cheerful and free from stress. This belief has changed to value where we hold to it tightly. We made sure to follow this value of sharing ears and shoulders, and helping one another in every situation. This also has led me and other family members to take this value up and control or change how we live our lives. Our life which is based on a personal code of values brings meaning, purpose, and direction to living. How the rule of law can be used as guide to moral choice Rules and regulations can be found in many places but when it comes to official rules and regulations they are referred as law. Law is generated in a society to control the behavior of people that constitute the society. Law is generally found in organizations, legislation and legal opinions. It is also known as a formal mechanism to control socialism. Law is very important and useful to establish and maintain social order. (Glanville Williams) Rules of law can be considered as the base for setting up a society and it helps in making positive changes to the ways of bringing up the society. When a person has the knowledge of law, they can understand public affairs better which is really important for establishment of a society. When law is studied, it will promote some understanding of social values. Thus, it makes the person to choose rules of law for a society by comparing the good effects and bad effects they may have on the society. This choice of rules will create good ethics for the society. All the members must follow the rules accordingly and that will eventually create a good social order. For an example, when the organization set a rule for its members on not to be harsh on the customers, the members should always keep that in mind and obey it all the time. If at all they disobey the rule, they may need to be out of the society or be sacked. Therefore, this rule can be a guide for people to be ethical in that society. They will make sure that they do not be harsh on others in order to maintain a good social order. Social order is considered as an organization or mechanism that exists with the enforcement of rules of laws. A person must learn to obey the rules that are set up for the organization or society and accept them in order to fit him or herself in that society. For most cases, social order is always pre-developed which means it is usually inherited by the older people of that society. They integrated cultures and personalities as a guide to develop the ideas and beliefs for the society which has changed into moral values. In addition to that, moral values shape a persons behaviour and it also manage the group activity within that society. If the established law or values are not followed by the members of a society, conflict may arise. Therefore an organization should always make sure that their members always follow the values practised in that organization in order to maintain smooth relationships and healthy environment. Summary Ethics is the formal study of moral standards and conduct. For this reason ethics is also known as moral philosophy. The study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles that humans have constructed for themselves or as the life guidelines and cultures that a particular society requires for its own members. We had discussed ethics in 3 subtopics which is norms, values and beliefs. In conclusion, first of all, norms are useful tool for the social behaviour of a person towards his daily activity and possess acceptable behaviours that are the unintended, unexpected result of individuals communications. For example, a system of norms specified what is satisfactory and what is not satisfactory in a society or group. Belief is defined as the mind-set of a person that intentions are true, and confidence in the fact or way of life of something. It is proof of a mental attitude of acceptance toward a proposition without the full intellectual evidence required to guarantee its truth. Beliefs have been well-known according to their level of certainty which is mistrust, an opinion, or a confidence. Belief becomes awareness only when the truth of a intention becomes obvious to the believer himself. Values can be concluded as the foundation of beliefs of the persons which guide and encourage their attitudes and belief. There are three main theories of values which humans can have favoured values, instrumental values and fundamental values. Each of it plays an important and unique role in our life in the development of moral standards and moral norm. Values are about belief and ideas of culture that are acceptable or not by a society. Besides that, rules of law that are chosen for an organization or society can be used as a guide to moral choice. When rules are to be followed by the members of the organization, a healthy environment and a good social order can be maintained. Rules that are formed in a society will ensure that all the members follow them that eventually become moral values in that organization. When the entire members act according to the moral values formed through the rules, an ethical organization can be formed.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Derek Jeter: Before A World Champion Essay -- Biography Biographies Bi

The Life of Derek Jeter: Before a World Champion "Derek Jeter, a professional ballplayer for the YankeesÂ…" are the exact words Derek Jeter, himself, used in his eighth-grade yearbook (Jeter xvi). For as long as he could remember, Jeter has longed to be a New York Yankee. Fifteen years after predicting he would be a professional ballplayer for the Yankees, Derek Jeter is now more than a Yankee. Jeter isn't only a Yankee; he is a family guy and a World Champion. His career started when he was five years old, and everything has evolved from there. Sports fans know what life for Derek Jeter is now, but what was life like before he became a world champion, superstar, and captain of the New York Yankees. Derek Jeter's life is started and baseball is about to be changed forever. On June 26, 1974, Charles and Dorothy Jeter gave birth to one of the greatest athletes today, Derek Jeter, in Pequannock, New Jersey (Biography par 1). Charles, being caucasian, and Dorothy, being African American, gave Derek his tan complexion. For the next four years Jeter lived in New Jersey within 30 miles of Yankee Stadium (Biography par 1). Not knowing at the time that he would end up back in New York as a Yankee, Jeter's family moved to Kalamazoo, Michigan where Derek was able to start playing baseball at the age of five, and would spend the summers with his grandma in New Jersey (Biography par 1). She persuaded him to be a Yankee fan by taking him to multiple games during the summer at Yankee Stadium. Soon, Jeter would come to idolize Dave Winfield (Biography par 1), who played outfield for the Yankees from 1981 to 1988 (Winfield), and was later inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Now that Jeter has been exposed to baseball and Yankee... ... healthy lifestyle. It also taught kids to "turn away" from substances such as drugs and alcohol. From the time Jeter was born he should have been put in a Yankee uniform. He was born to play baseball and he obviously realized that. With his hard work and effort, he now is Captain of the New York Yankees. But without his hard work, dedication, and family support, Jeter wouldn't be anywhere near a Yankee. Now a four time World Champion and two times MVP of the World Series. Jeter continues to work hard and accomplish more and more goals. Derek Jeter will soon be remembered as one of the best players to ever play the game of baseball. Works Cited 1. Jeter, Derek. The Life You Imagine: Life Lessons for achieving you're dreams. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000. 2. Derek Jeter-Biography. 1 Nov 2006 . 3. Dave Winfield-Fielding. 30 Oct 2006 .

Monday, November 11, 2019

Philosophy of Nursing Essay

Nursing refers to a contact or a bond that exists between two or more persons in which one of the two persons provide professional care to the other in addition to providing advice with an aim of improving the health of the other individual an preventing illness. Philosophy of nursing may refer to beliefs that different individuals have towards nursing. Humans refer to the primates in the family of hominids. They have a brain which is highly expanded enabling them to solve problems through reasoning, control of feelings, use of language and introspection. Humans are always yearning to understand the world around them and influence the natural occurrences. Nursing involves the interaction between two human beings and therefore human must exist for the process of nursing to be successful. Health refers to a state of well being where there is no sickness and reflects the social, physical, spiritual and mental fitness of an individual. Good health may be brought about by a balanced diet, exercise and rest. It is through nursing that an individual acquires good health (Pharris, 2001, pp. 8-12). Nursing refers to a science in which the person involved aims at ensuring a good health for individuals, families and communities. In general, the science of nursing aims at upholding the quality of life. It involves caring for individuals in a conducive environment to promote good health and prevent illness. Environment is defined as the extensive information on issues, programs and policies affecting our surrounding. It refers to anything internal or external that may create some impact in the life of an individual including all the living and non living organisms that exist on the earth. It has to conducive to facilitate the process of nursing. Humans A good pain control after surgery when accompanied by appropriate community health services enables an individual to rebuild him or herself. It is however the responsibility of every person to ensure that the nurse or the doctor knows about him or herself before the pain control is administered on him or her. This the patient could do by enabling the doctor to know about his or her drug addiction either the past or present. This will enable the nurse to know the type and the amount of medication to offer. Surgery of the stomach is a very painful one and the drug history of a person may affect the person’s tolerance to the pain or response to the pain relievers. The pain control in patients also depends on the age of the patient as well the conditions of health of the individual before the surgery. Controlling pain after surgery is a very essential step in the life of a patient as it helps the individual to gain the best results on functionality. This is appropriate because the pain after surgery increases the functionality of the patient. Patients who before the surgery were on pain medication do require an administration of extended pain medication. Otherwise the patient may require shorter acting pain medications for the control of pain (Newman, 2003, pp. 110-115). Nursing The belief that good pain control and community health services help rebuild a person after surgery relates to nursing in the sense that nurses have been found to be mediums through which terminal care at home can be improved. Pain control is one of the components of quality terminal care in the community. Patients who have undergone surgery should be given enough advice by the nurses on where to get help if necessary. In addition to this they should be given appropriate analgesics to carry home which should be accompanied by sufficient instructions on their usage. Nevertheless, patients should be given both verbal and written information about pain so that and how pain can be reduced. The nursing staff should always be there for patients to advice them and to discuss with them their choice of a pain relieving techniques. The pain that is experienced by patients after surgery is usually very great that it should not be underestimated. This is because the pain does different implications on both the patients and the community health services. A proper pain control after surgery therefore requires the intervention of the nurse which will give way for community health services thus helping the patient to gain his or her health back. Nurses facilitate the process of pain control and ensure that it well managed to speed the process of recovering of a patient ( Margaret,1999, pp. 227-230). Health The health of a person enables that person to function mentally, spiritually, physically and socially in full ability. The belief that a good pain control and community health service helps an individual to rebuild after a surgery relates to health in the sense that an individual will only have a good health when he or she is not in pain. A person is considered to fully healthy if he or she is not feeling any pain. Surgery involves a lot of pain therefore after a surgery an individual requires pain relief which is achieved through proper pain control by the nurses to enable him or her to function properly both physically, mentally, spiritually and socially. When a person is in pain, he or she will not perform any physical activity in addition the person will not be able to socialize freely with other people. The person will also not think properly thus lacking both mental and spiritual thinking. This is because pain makes a person uncomfortable creating a feeling that something is wrong in the body. The pain in the body i. e. physical pain sends a signal to the brain through the spinal cords that something is wrong thus stopping the mind from working properly. It is therefore essential that after surgery a patient should receive a good pain control and community health service to enable him or her to rebuild his health. Effective pain management is therefore considered by nurses as part of recovery because it when it is well controlled it speeds up the process of healing and reduce complications that a person may experience as a result of surgery (Endo, 2004, pp. 240-245). Environment The surroundings in which individuals live do affect the activities performed in that particular environment. Nurses do require an enabling environment to enable them to perform their duties properly. After surgery it will for the well being of the patient to have a conducive environment in which physical, mental, spiritual and social healing is possible. The nature of the environment in which pain control is conducted is very essential and should be set to fit the requirements of different patients. Pain control will enable an individual to feel comfortable as he or she heals, get well faster and avoid some problems associated with surgery. The nurse theorist observed was Margaret Newman who also came up with a nursing theory of health as an expanding consciousness which requires every person to find the meaning of life and find connections with other people in the rest of the world. According to Margaret, health means increasing awareness. She put forward that the role of a nurse is to identify the lifestyle of an individual so that the nurse can work within that lifestyle to help the individual achieve the goals of his or her life. Newman’s theory includes the health of every individual irrespective of the condition of illness i. e. whether sick or well (Desai, 1996). Jean on the other hand developed a caring theory which involves the caring actions taken by nurses in their interaction with the patients. The caring theory involves the deep respect offered to patients by the nurses for the mysteries of life and the ability of the patients to change their lifestyles. Watson’s caring theory also requires a nurse to help the patients to acquire self control, knowledge and healing not regarding their health conditions. The difference that exists between my beliefs on Newman’s theory and Watson’s caring theory is that Newman’s theory was focused on helping every person whether in the absence or presence of sickness to understand his or her status. It focused on the adjustments that a nurse should put to ensure that a person meets his or her requirements. Watson on the other hand focused on caring for the patients, respecting them and helping them to understand themselves by acquiring self control, knowledge and healing. The similarity between the two theories is that both the two believe that it is the role of a nurse to ensure appropriate lifestyles for different persons whether sick or not. They both believe that a nurse should be able to identify or recognize and accurately detect the health status of a person and be able to help that person accordingly. They believe that a nurse must come together and engage in an interaction so that the nurse can understand the unique lifestyle of the person and provide care in a manner that fits that lifestyle. Finally both the beliefs involve human and nursing in the science of nursing in order to provide desired care to persons. The statement of my philosophy of nursing is the belief that Good pain control and community health services help rebuild a person after surgery. My philosophy of nursing views nursing as both an art and a science. It requires a nurse to understand the meaning of health in addition to understanding the perception of moral and ethical importance of care. The caring offered by the nurses involves the application of theoretical nursing knowledge, behavior and humanity.  My nursing philosophy includes wellness, family, collaboration and disability (Yamashita, 1997, pp. 34-39). Conclusion Surgery is a very painful exercise which usually requires an immediate pain control to stop the patient from suffering. Pain management especially after surgery is therefore very essential for the well being of the patient and nurses should ensure that it is provided to enable the patient to rebuild his or her health. This is because pain control facilitates the process of healing of an individual.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Closer Critique essays

Closer Critique essays Closer, performed on November 26, 2000 at the Mark Taper Forum was an overall excellent show. The show is about two men and two women who are thrown together by chance. Throughout the play they connect, disconnect and reconnect in bewildering combinations with each other as they try to get closer All their privacies as well as secrets are brought out in the open and nothing is hidden. It is presented to the audience in a daring, and obscene manner, which is at the same time thrilling, intimate, and funny. Closer reveals much about todays modern sexual politics and how little we sometimes really know about it. During the performance I found it difficult at times to follow, however this is at no fault of the actors and only of that of the playwright. All the actors presented themselves extremely well. There are several moments such as the opening that contain monologues. This in my opinion is always one of the hardest things to do however I thought that the actress was not in her moment during the beginning of her monologue. She seemed to be just saying her lines while staring into space. It was only after a few minutes where it seemed like she turned on a switch and suddenly popped into character. I thought about this for a while and I kept wondering why she could do it a few minutes into her monologue but not at the beginning. The only conclusion that I had for this was that the show was held for nearly twenty minutes and this added stress to the actor (since she had the opening of the show) and perhaps she warmed down in this period of time. This only convinced me more on how important it is to warm up before a show as we discussed in class. There also was one point in the show where no lines existed between two characters. They were chattering over the Internet and the only way we knew what they were saying was there was a projection screen that displayed wha ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Affirmative Action Overview

Affirmative Action Overview Affirmative action refers to policies that try to correct past discrimination in hiring, university admissions, and other candidate selection. The necessity of affirmative action is often debated. The concept of affirmative action is that positive steps should be taken to ensure equality, instead of ignoring discrimination or waiting for society to fix itself. Affirmative action becomes controversial when it is perceived as giving preference to minorities or women over other qualified candidates. The Origin of Affirmative Action Programs Former U.S. President John F. Kennedy used the phrase â€Å"affirmative action† in 1961. In an executive order, President Kennedy required federal contractors to â€Å"take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed†¦without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.† In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson issued an order that used the same language to call for nondiscrimination in government employment.  Ã‚   It was not until 1967 that President Johnson addressed sex discrimination. He issued another executive order on October 13, 1967. It expanded his previous order and required the government’s equal opportunity programs to â€Å"expressly embrace discrimination on account of sex† as they worked toward equality. The Need for Affirmative Action The legislation of the 1960s was part of a larger climate of seeking equality and justice for all members of society. Segregation had been legal for decades after the end of slavery. President Johnson argued for affirmative action: if two men were running a race, he said, but one had his legs bound together in shackles, they could not achieve a fair result by simply removing the shackles. Instead, the man who had been in chains should be allowed to make up the missing yards from the time he was bound. If striking down segregation laws could not instantly solve the problem, then positive steps of affirmative action could be used to achieve what President Johnson called â€Å"equality of result.† Some opponents of affirmative action saw it as a â€Å"quota† system that unfairly demanded a certain number of minority candidates be hired no matter how qualified the competing white male candidate was. Affirmative action brought up different issues concerning women in the workplace.  There was little protest of women in traditional â€Å"women’s jobs†- secretaries, nurses, elementary school teachers, etc. As more women began to work in jobs that had not been traditional women’s jobs, there was an outcry that giving a job to a woman over a qualified male candidate would be â€Å"taking† the job from the man. The men needed the job, was the argument, but the women did not need to work. In her 1979 essay â€Å"The Importance of Work,† Gloria Steinem rejected the notion that women should not work if they do not â€Å"have to. She pointed out the double standard that employers never ask men with children at home if they need the job for which they are applying. She also argued that many women do, in fact, â€Å"need† their jobs. Work is a human right, not a male right, she wrote, and she criticized the false argument that independence for women is a luxury. New and Evolving Controversies Has affirmative action corrected past inequality? During the 1970s, the controversy over affirmative action often surfaced around the issues of government hiring and equal employment opportunity. Later, the affirmative action debate shifted away from the workplace and toward college admissions decisions. It has thus shifted away from women and back to a debate over race. There are roughly equal numbers of men and women admitted to higher education programs, and women have not been the focus of university admissions arguments. U.S. Supreme Court decisions have examined the affirmative action policies of competitive state schools such as the University of California and the University of Michigan. Although strict quotas have been struck down, a university admissions committee may consider minority status as one of many factors in admissions decisions as it selects a diverse student body.   Still Necessary? The Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s Liberation Movement achieved a radical transformation of what society accepted as normal. It is often difficult for subsequent generations to understand the need for affirmative action. They may have grown up intuitively knowing that â€Å"you can’t discriminate because that’s illegal!†Ã‚   While some opponents say affirmative action is outdated, others find that women still face a â€Å"glass ceiling† that prevents them from advancing past a certain point in the workplace.   Many organizations continue to promote inclusive policies, whether or not they use the term â€Å"affirmative action.† They fight discrimination on the basis of disability, sexual orientation, or family status (mothers or women who may become pregnant). Amid calls for a race-blind, neutral society, the debate over affirmative action continues.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Field Experience Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Field Experience - Essay Example The program was unique for me because my local language is not English. I come from Spain and speak Spanish. However, most ESOL students spoke Spanish in the institution where I learnt. Their second common language is Arabic and then Vietnamese comes third. The other languages included Urdu, Portuguese, Cambodian, and Laotian. ESOL students have limited proficiency in speaking, reading, listening and writing. Being a unique program for many foreign students whose native language is not English, the institution had set goals, objectives, and the specific learning activities that enhanced effective learning. They are discussed as shown below. The goal of the program for English language learners was to provide instruction so that students could become fully proficient in English and meet the same challenging state academic content. Students’ achievement standards and the state graduation requirements were expected to be met. The program also aimed at providing the learners with personalized services to ensure success in academic achievement standards and state graduation requirements. These services were offered by competent ESOL teachers. It was the duty of the management of the institution to make sure that the teachers handling the students met their instructional needs. The ESOL program targeted learners who were aged between 3 and 21 years old. It aimed at making the students to learn to speak, write, and read English language proficiently. The teachers also determined the understanding capacity of the students by making a record while they described something, a place or a person. The teachers determined the understanding capacity of the students by making a record while learners described something, a place or a person. The teacher then played the recording for the students to cite or demonstrate what they have

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Purchasing Power Parity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 15000 words

Purchasing Power Parity - Essay Example A new Eviews workfile is generated from the main menu of the Eviews by selecting File/New/Workfile, which opens up the create workfile dialogue box. Dated-regular frequency is chosen as the workfile structure type, frequency is chosen as monthly with the start date as 1990-1 and end date as 2011-03 as shown in fig1. The data from the excel is then imported by selecting the Proc/Import/Read Text-Lotus-Excel options of the main menu and choosing the dataset Data_Canada_PPP.xls. The number of series is entered as 3 in the Excel spreadsheet import dialogue box as shown in fig2. The data is imported successfully and is verified with the original data in the excel sheet by opening the generated data as shown in fig 3. Fig 1 Generate New Workfile Fig 2 Enter the number of series of Data Fig 3 Verifying the imported data 2) Generating Real Exchange Rate qt Real Exchange Rate qt is obtained by the formula: qt = st – pt + pt* -------- 1 where st = log(Exchange_rate) -------- 2 pt = log(CPI_Can) -------- 3 pt* = log(CPI_US) -------- 4 The formulae 2 to 4 are first generated using the Genr option in the workfile. The value of qt is then generated using the formula 1. The generated qt is shown in fig 3. e Fig 3 Value of qt 3) Plotting the graph (qt) Fig 4 shows the graphical view of series of values of qt. ... This can be tested using: Interpretation from Graphical representation: A non-stationary series produces lines with definite upward and downward trend with the passage of time, whereas a stationary series does not produce any such lines. Observing the Correlogram or Autocorrelation function (ACF): For a stationary process, the ACF will decline to zero in a quicker fashion whereas for a non-stationary process, the ACF declines in a linear fashion. From the graphical representation of real exchange rates between Canada and US shown in fig 4, it can be noted that the real exchange rate is likely to have some sort of random walk-up and walk-down pattern over the period of time. The presence of random walks indicates that the series qt seems to show non-stationarity in behaviour. However, the random walk does not show any increasing or decreasing trend. 4) Unit Test Root Non-stationarity of a process is characterized by the presence of unit root. In order to test whether the process is st ationary or not, it would suffice if we can check for the presence of unit root. This check can be performed by employing Augmented Dickey-Fuller’s test. The overall objective of this test is to test the null hypothesis that ? = 1 in: yt = ? yt-1 + ? + ut against the one-sided alternative ? < 1. So we define the hypothesis as H0 : yt = yt-1 + ? + ut (qt is non-stationary, ? =1) H1 : yt = ? yt-1 + ? + ut (qt is stationary. ? < 1) Subtracting the above equation with yt-1, we get the simplified equation as: ? yt = ? yt-1 + ? + ut Where ? = ?-1. Now the hypothesis for the presense unit roots can be written as: H0 : ? =0 (qt contains a unit root and is

Thursday, October 31, 2019

CLA L10 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

CLA L10 - Essay Example Helen of Troy left her homeland and moved to a new land with a male Paris. Medea crossed boundaries with Jason. Paris takes Helen from her husband Menelaus and travels from Sparta to Troy with her. This abduction causes the Trojan War. The contest between the goddesses and the judgment of Paris points out the cause of Helen’s abduction; Aphrodite promises to Paris that he could have Helen as a prize (Steiner, 2011). By traveling to Troy, Helen abandoned her home, her husband, and her child and broken the social boundaries of marriage. The result is disastrous for Trojans and Greeks, ten years of war, involving bloodshed and suffering, to bring Helen home from Troy. Helen’s movement destroys all Trojan husbands and perverts the wedding rituals of the Trojan women. Medea is a maiden who leaves her homeland willingly to travel over geographical boundaries to aid her hero that she fell in love with on her quests. She helps Jason to win the Golden Fleece. In Colchis. Aphrodite influenced Medeas falling in love with Jason. Medea betrays her father Aeetes and aids Jason. Like Helen, Medea is influenced by the gods. Aphrodite influences their decision to cross boundaries. Hera convinces Aphrodite to make Medea fall in love with Jason so that Jason can obtain Fleece, as Hera’s motive to eventually ruin Pelias for dishonoring her. Like Helen’s act of crossing boundaries, Medea’s traveling with Jason was also characterized by bloodshed. Medea and Helen’s movement to new lands results in the death of others. Medea murdered her brother Apsyrtus. While traveling from Colchis on the Argo, Medea aided the voyagers by killing Talos. In Iolchus, Medea kills the ruler of the city, which she is foreign to and destroys family bonds. When Jason forsakes Medea in Corinth, she kills both the princess and her father Creon in vengeance. Medea is cruelly smart than Helen and goes

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Essay Example for Free

The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Essay Sometimes in death, it makes people think about their life. In the short story, â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,† written by Katherine Anne Porter, the main character, Granny Weatherall is doing just that; looking back on her life. In the film made based on this short story Granny Weatherall also thinks about her life, but as she is doing things around the house, living her life and not while being shut up in her bed. There are other differences that take place between both the film and the short story. But in the end they both tell the story of an old woman named Granny Weatherall. The short story version of â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† has a stream of consciousness point of view. It is basically Granny Weatherall, while lying in her death bed, going over previous events that had taken place in her life as they came to her mind and thoughts. Granny Weatherall also thinks about things that she is planning on doing the next day. â€Å"The box in the attic with all those letters tied up, well, she’d have to go through that tomorrow.† (17). That was Granny Weatherall thinking to herself about going through some personal letters she did not want Cornelia, her daughter that she lives with, to find. In the film version of The Jilting of Granny Weatherall the viewers get to see the story of Granny Weatherall in an objective point of view. The story is showed by Granny Weatherall actually being out of bed and doing things. While she is going about her day, the film shows us her thoughts through little flashbacks Granny Weatherall has. Different from the short story, Granny Weatherall actually goes up to the attic and goes through the letters and Cornelia comes up there with her. There is also some symbolism that takes place in the film that does not happen in the short story. â€Å"What does a woman do when she has put on the white veil and set out the white cake for a man and he doesn’t come?† (29). Granny Weatherall thinks about this in the short story, but actually makes a white cake in the film, symbolizing her jilting and how she still thinks of it. After reading the short story and viewing the film, I prefer the actual short story in the book over watching it. Reading it the first time was a little confusing. But after watching the film and then going back and reading the short story over again, it makes enjoy the story so much more. I now know that the story is told through Granny Weatherall’s thoughts and so when I read I can get a better understanding of who Granny Weatherall is. Also, I believe that reading the last sentence of the short story the reader gets to enjoy a better view in their mind then when what the film shows. â€Å"She stretched herself with a deep breath and blew out the light.† (61). Both the film and the short story of â€Å"The Jilting of Granny Weatherall† were great. The film is easier to follow the first time watched but the book takes the reader through Granny Weatherall’s inner thoughts. They have some differences amongst themselves but they also both share the common theme of someone thinking about their life right before death comes.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Increasing Trend In Marriage Halls

The Increasing Trend In Marriage Halls The increasing trend in marriage halls over the years mainly from 2007-2012 is contributed by a number of reasons. The main aim of this thesis is to find out the reasons to the rising trend in marriage halls from 2007-2012 and to gather in depth knowledge of the marriage halls business and industry in Lahore Pakistan. The areas of research are Gulberg and Garden Town Lahore. Marriage is a basic necessary process every human being passes through during their life time. It not only is necessary but a social custom as it is a religious practice that every individual is likely to follow. Marriage halls aim at organizing marriage and wedding functions providing all the services for the convenience of the people under one roof. Marriage halls provide all services including food, cutlery, sitting arrangements, decor, music system, safety, security and parking. The mission of a marriage hall is to sustain customers and increase repeat clientele as there is high competition in the marriage hall industry. Marriage halls aims at providing customers with the best quality and best arrangements in arranging their marriage function and allowing them to be satisfied as much as possible. Marriage halls business has been a glooming business in the past couple of years and has proven to be profitable. There are 20 marriage halls located in Gulberg and Garden Town both registered and un-registered. As a result with the changes in the government regulations, awareness of customers and economical changes in the economy of Pakistan has affected the industry tremendously and has also given way to increase in competition by introducing outdoor catering services, marquees and other catering service providers to meet customer needs. In this paper I will be discussing the trend of marriage halls from 2007-2012 and the reasons as to why they have increased or decreased supported by facts and figures and using both qualitative and quantitative data. I will be focusing on only Gulberg and Garden Town area in Lahore as my target market and sample size. 1.1 Background Increase in the number of marriage halls and the increasing trend over the years have increased in all over Pakistan from 2001-2012. Pakistan having a large population allows a large number of people getting married every now and then. The marriage halls business is increasing day by day and therefore it is of my interest to find out the reasons to the increasing number of marriage halls in Lahore from year 2007-2012. The increase in the number of marriage halls is due to the convenience it provides to the hosts and allows package budgeting and are easily available according to the requirement. Indoor marriage halls provide protection against bad weather conditions and also allow more traditional outlook for marriages the ambiance, the decor as compared to the outdoor marriage events. According to the Punjab Government laws the halls have to be closed by 10pm rather than events held outside. The owners of marriage halls are more pressure and tension to shut down by 10pm if not they are penalized but in case of outdoor marriage events the organizer and host are in less pressure and tension as they have more time to vacating the area. The marriage hall industry is the only industry booming in the past 5 years as it requires converting residential area to commercial marriage halls. I am motivated to research on the rising trend of marriage halls as this research has not been done previously as it requires first hand information. Therefore it allows me to conduct different research methods to find out the increase in the number of marriage halls. The purpose of this research is to gain all the knowledge about the industry and to have in depth knowledge of the industry. 1.2 Industry Overview Marriage halls industry has been glooming in Pakistan from 2007-2012. A rising trend is seen in the increase of number of marriage halls in Pakistan. Investors foresee it as a profitable investment irrespective of the economical challenges, fluctuations in the prices and changing policies of the government. The changes in the government policies have affected the overall industry in Pakistan; therefore investors have made big investments in marriage halls business. Marriage halls are and have been facing different challenges that affect the business including the rules and regulations of wrapping up the function by 10pm, allowing a one-dish policy in food which as a result squeezes the profit margins for the investors but allows them to earn profits. The high rate of inflation strongly contributes to the increase in the number of marriage halls as the purchasing power of customers have reduced and they prefer to arrange their functions as economically as possible. The challenge of load shedding is another major problem faced by the marriage halls which as a result has increased their expenses and decreased their profits. The overall industry in Pakistan has been facing a business slum by the changes in the government frequently over the years with fluctuations of prices therefore marriage halls have been a safe resort for investors to invest and earn profits. As marriage is a necessary process every individual goes through investors foresee marriage halls business as a profitable business in spite of the challenges being faced by them. Recently from 2010, the competition for marriage halls has been increased by different competitors including marquees and outdoor catering which has increased competition for marriage halls to compete with. Though the target market for marriage halls is particularly the upper-middle, middle-middle and lower-middle class therefore it allows marriage halls business to sustain the business as the middle class income group is high in Pakistan. 1.3 SWOT Analysis Strengths Security Marriage halls provide security to the customers as compared to the other competitors. They provide security in situations of danger, fire and secure the properties of the guests in the function. Economical Prices Marriage halls target the middle class and therefore allow middle class income groups to arrange their function with the best facilities in the most economical prices possible. Due to the high inflation rate in Pakistan marriage halls are booming as the purchasing power of consumers have decreased and marriage halls provide the best economical prices to arrange function compares to competitors. Weaknesses Customization A major weakness of marriage halls is that they provide standard format to arrange marriage functions and lack in providing customization the customers according to their needs. Capacity Marriage halls do not have enough capacity to accommodate people more then 500-700. Whereas marquees can accommodate large number of people from 700-1000 number of guests. Opportunities Increase usage and capacity Marriage halls have an opportunity to increase their usage by conducting other functions including seminars, exams, business meetings, lunches to increase their revenue. Marriage halls also have an opportunity to increase their capacity by building halls to accommodate more people. Threats Government Regulations Government regulations pose a serious threat to marriage halls as they can only offer one dish to be served in the main course and the time restrictions that the functions have to be wrapped up by 10pm. The government regulations are a limitation for marriage halls to earn more profit and to offer customers more satisfaction. Increasing Competition The increasing competition in the industry is also a serious threat that the marriage halls have to face a number of challenges and meet different ways of conducting business. 1.4. Research Objectives:- To find out the percentage increase of the marriage halls from 2007-2012 in Lahore. To find out the number of marriage halls in Gulberg and Garden Town Lahore from 2007-2012. To find out the reasons as to why the trend has increased in marriage halls over the years. To conduct primary research and gain knowledge on marriage halls business in Pakistan. To find out the prospects of marriage halls in Lahore Pakistan. To compare the trend of rise in marriage halls in Pakistan with India and China. 2 Theory 2.1 Literature Review:- Marriages take place in every society, community and country. A number of reasons have been highlighted over the years as to the rise of marriage halls. Wedding expenses have increased by 20 to 30 percent this season and are likely to increase in the coming months. Catering and poultry prices are high and wedding hall rates have been raised considerably. This has added to the consumers financial burden but traders in wedding-related businesses are making the best of it. Wedding halls in Gulberg, Garden Town, Johar Town and Faisal Town have increased their rates and blamed the move on inflation.2Inflation plays an important role in decreasing purchasing power of consumers to spend on wedding activities. Increase in prices has increased expenses and therefore there has been a 30 percent increase in the prices of wedding expenses and wedding halls rates. Due to the high inflation rate consumers find places with economical prices to arrange their functions. Marriage halls therefore provide the only means to arrange a wedding function economically that can be easily afforded by the consumers targeting the middle income groups. The trend of conducting marriage ceremonies at banquet halls has decreased in the city in recent days, as people are scared to leave their houses in the prevailing security situation, owners of various banquet halls told Daily Times on Saturday. In addition to a reduction in the total number of reservations, the numbers of guests attending weddings has also decreased, they said, adding this was very bad for business. They said their business was already under tremendous pressure due to rising prices and limited budgets and the recent wave of terror attacks had only added fuel to the decline. Inflation has squeezed the purchasing power of the people, said Mahboob Ahmed, the owner of a private marriage hall.3 In 2009 with the increase of terrorism in the country marriage hall business has been affected tremendously. People instead arranging their functions outdoor or in marriage halls preferred to stay at home and arrange it at their home. Lack of security caused a lot of people to think whether to arrange wedding functions in house or in marriage halls. Terrorism along with inflation posed a serious threat to the marriage halls and increased intense amount of security concerns in order to survive their business. The industry in 2009 faced a number of challenges allowing the business slope to move downwards effecting marriage halls adversely. The LDA concerned is responsible for providing basic facilities to residents, but it seems that the authority has adopted a liberal policy for issuance of NOCs for conversion of residential plots into commercial plots. It is because of this liberal policy businessmen take advantage and are building marriage halls without considering the prerequisites of the by-laws. The residents are suffering from this mushroom growth of marriage halls which are more than from any other scheme in Lahore. 5 The liberal policy of LDA to issue NOC to the marriage halls in one of the major reasons in the rise of marriage halls in the past couple of years. Lahore Development Authority has been converting residential plots into commercial areas providing businessmen to invest in opening marriage halls and serve as a source of generating revenue for the government as well as the marriage hall owners. Marriage halls surrounded everywhere in the residential area cause inconvenience to the residents causing traffic jams and noise disturbance to the residents living in the surroundings. By issuing NOC creates a high opportunity for businessman to open marriage halls and earn revenue more easily as compared to other industry in Pakistan District Coordination Officer (DCO) Noorul Amin Mengal has warned the owners of marriage halls and said they should be closed on the given time and in case of negligence they would have to face consequences as per law. Chairing a meeting at Town Hall on Wednesday, the DCO said in future no case would be lodged against bride and groom and their relatives while the entire responsibility of late closing of marriage halls would be on the shoulder of halls owners and case would be registered against them.6 Government regulations have immensely affected the running of marriage halls business. All marriage halls are strictly advised to adhere to wrapping up of a wedding by 10pm. In providing food items government has also limited the availability of food items to one-dish only which effects the marriage halls reducing their profits. The DCO stated to charge fines to any marriage hall violating the law and the fine solely being paid by the marriage hall owners. Government regulations have limited the profits of marriage halls but on the other hand the government regulations have been made in the favor of the public security and protection. Therefore these laws allow marriage halls to be profitable as the customers pay the full price of a function allowing marriage halls to provide less and earn more money per head. As Pakistani society has grown more overtly conservative, weddings remain one of the few culturally acceptable venues for men and women to meet without restriction and even dance with each other. In other words, a mehndi is simply a substitute for a nightclub. The phrases used to justify the extravagance ranged from people will talk if you dont have an elaborate wedding, to I just want a traditional wedding and there is social capital being built at weddings.7Marriages in Pakistan from the very start have been a source of entertainment and over the years the ritual has become more of a status symbol of having a prestigious marriage. People in Pakistan spend big amount of money on marriages and is known to be one of the biggest expenses in lifetime for every family in Pakistan. Marriages in Pakistan are costly due to the different events taking place in a marriage including dholki, mehndi, barat and walima. Pakistan facing severe economic challenges the higher spending on wedding functions has not declined as marriages in Pakistan is known to be a big event and spending more money is a status symbol to have a status in the society. But Indias burgeoning middle class now 300 million strong are turning weddings into showcases of their growing disposable incomes and newfound appetites for the goodies of the global marketplace. The largesse has spawned an $11 billion wedding industry, growing at 25 percent annually and beginning to rival the US industry valued at $50 billion. Top global luxury brands and local entrepreneurs are learning that the way into the pocketbooks of Indias new consumers is through their nuptials. 8India has a big wedding industry which is overcoming the US industry. Indian weddings are now a show of wealth in the society and wedding service providers are earning large amounts of money by customizing services. The Indian wedding industry is growing with 25% annually which is more than the growth of the US industry. India is an emerging country with people witnessing rise in disposable income. Increasing disposable income renders people to mark this grand event with luxurious celebrations. Wedding at exotic locations, far from the maddening crowd of the city has become a rage and is considered to be a significant driver. Destination weddings continue to increase as it allows the wedding to be unique. In this format of the event, a planner becomes imperative due to the lack of knowledge of the place at which the wedding will take place as well as towards streamlining the entire process. An Indian wedding needs a lot of time and effort towards planning and implementation.9 India has a big wedding industry growing with a high rate every year. Different factors contribute to the increase in the spending on the marriages in India as well as the number of marriages taking place every year. Weddings for higher class in India are an opportunity to show their wealth, for middle class it is an event for which they have to go beyond limits to make it luxurious and for the lower class it is as simple as a normal event. Spending on luxurious locations, places, have given way to wedding planners as wedding in India require a lot of time to plan. Demographic Profile, In 2011, India had a population of 1.21 billion, and with average family size of five members, there are around 242 million families in India. Considering one marriage per family every 20 years, on average India has around 10 million marriages per year. Also,the estimated median age in India as of 2011 in 26.2 years, signifying a large proportion of population in marriage age group.10 India has a large population of 1.21 billion with average families accounting around 242 families. Almost 10 million marriages take place every year in India with the increasing population the number of marriage increases proportionally. In 2011, it was seen that majority of Indias population lies with the marriage age bracket. Availability of wedding loan and wedding insurance, Many banks and financial institutions have started lending marriages loan to ensure hassle free wedding experience. Also, increase in disposable income has encouraged newlywed to opt for wedding loan and make wedding a grand event. This attitude to make the wedding event grand increases the total wedding cost. With high financial stakes, the couples or their families opt to buy marriage insurance that take care of contingencies during marriage like cancellation/ postponement due to fire or natural disaster, accident of bride groom or burglary.11 Another important factor contributing to the increase in the number of weddings and increase on wedding expenditures is the accessibility of marriage loans and insurance provided by the Indian government. Now its easier for people to spend more as they have access to loans and can pay off later. These all facilities provided by the Indian government are provided to enhance the wedding industry in India and to strengthen it. Wedding Insurance is also popular among people as due to natural disasters during wedding functions people have an option of being compensated by the insurance companies in case of different problems including natural disaster. Official figures suggest that 10 million people wed annually and that the industry as whole turns over more than 250 billion yuan (US$30.2 billion) each year. Big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have established well developed wedding celebration markets. Beijing, for example, leads the country with 1,000 wedding related firms. About 50,000 couples get married each year in the capital, a diamond mine for the wedding businesses.12 China wedding industry is rising with an increasing number of marriages taking place each year. The main cities of China including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou contribute to the higher revenues generated from weddings on a larger scale. All cities in China have related business to the wedding business which help generate higher profits and develop its wedding industry. While parents use weddings to cement their status and display their wealth, the bridal couple are experimenting with ways to personalize the experience, drawing not only from the U.S. but also from South Korea and Japan, and usually involving vast sums of money. Whereas Chinese weddings used to be about a dinner banquet and honoring parents, todays weddings feature more exotic fare like fire-dancing, elaborate video presentations and motorcades of luxury cars with nameplates like Bentley, Lamborghini and Ferrari.13 Wedding in old times were entirely different from what they are now in the 21st century. People now focus more on showing of their wealth and status by having a lavish wedding of their children and is more considered as a symbol of honour. Chinese weddings are now arranged more exotically with having large amount of budgets for each step in a wedding arrangement from wedding planners to make up to photography and honeymoon. People in china display their status in a wedding by the prestigious cars they have and the different presentations of showing of their wealth in the society. Excess is in order in all departments of the Indian wedding industry, estimated to be a staggering US$ 25.5 billion (Rs.1,42,596 crore) the economy of a small country and growing at the explosive rate of 20 to 25 per cent a year. The speed of economic growth in India, which is responsible for the creation of overnight fortunes, is also creating a conspicuous, yet almost desperate type of consumption at weddings. The average budget for an Indian wedding ceremony in the middle class is estimated to be US$ 34,000 (around Rs.19.01 lakh). The upper-middle and rich classes are estimated to spend upward of US$ 1 million (Rs.5.59 crore). This doesnt include cash and valuables given as part of a dowry. Companies like GE Money India have introduced an auspicious personal loan, exclusively for weddings. Giant malls like the Wedding Souk in Pitampura, Delhi, spread over one acre and with over 100 shops dedicated to weddings, have emerged14 Indian wedding industry is rising day by day and the Indian government provides loans to provide access to cash for weddings. The average wedding costs around 6 crore. People in India spend large amount of money on weddings therefore wedding in a flourishing business in India and contributes a large chunk to the growing economy. Marriage rates have tumbled over the past few decades, falling from about 10 marriages per 1,000 people in the mid-1980s to 6.8 marriages in 2009. This decline is a result of social influences (fewer couples looking to commit) and attitudinal changes, as consumers hold off for financial and lifestyle reasons. However, the fall in the marriage rate has not resulted in a complete disaster for the industry. In fact, the decline has led to a higher-than-average wedding spend, meaning even greater profits for those involved Coming off of 2005 and 2006, two of the most prosperous years in the wedding industry, the sector plummeted as the economy entered recession. Revenues fell from a high of $67.5 billion in 2005 to $42.9 billion in 2009. Industry performance is expected to improve in 2010, expanding an estimated 10% to $47.2 billion, but still far below the years, so businesses need to put in place appropriate strategies to capture that increasing demand.15 As mentioned above the decline in marriage rate in China has led to increase in spending and earn higher profits. The decline is mainly caused by social influence on people, lack of commitment and difference in lifestyles. The decline has not caused damaged but allows the Chinese government to implement strategies that help to capture the increasing demand and develop wedding related business to enhance the industry and provide more services in order to generate more revenues from the wedding industry. 2.2. Competitor Analysis The competitor analysis focuses on two main competitors including Marquees and Outdoor Catering services that cause a serious threat to the marriage halls. Over the past few years the competition in the industry has increased by the increasing awareness among the consumers and consumer needs and wants. Consumers now like everything their way which imposes a pressure on the service providers to be more efficient and provide customized services to cater to their needs. 2.2.1. Marquees Marquee is a tent used for outdoor functions. Different investors have introduced a new concept of marquee which is basically taken from Saudia Arabia Hajj performance in Mina where there are small marquees for people to reside in for 5 days as a necessary process to perform Hajj. The concept has been introduced in Pakistan to arrange marriage and other functions in the outdoor. This has increased the competition for marriage halls as marquees allow customized services meeting the consumer needs and wants and providing value added facilities that include changing the theme of the set, colors, lighting, sitting arrangements to customize the marriage function to the consumer needs. Though marquees lack in providing few facilities including no kitchen, re-heating food facilities and as everything in a marquee is outsourced by other service providers they cause a threat to the quality of food and food diseases as to being stored for longer hours before it is served. Marquees pose a serious threat to the marriage halls indoor services as consumers are more aware and require more customized services and facilities then the traditional marriages concept in the marriage halls. 2.2.2. Outdoor Catering Services Outdoor catering services are an emerging business that has been posing a serious threat to the marriage halls from past many years. The Pioneers of the outdoor catering services are Nadeem Caterers, Hanif Rajput, Zafar Caterers, Dynasty and many other that have changed the way marriage take place now. They provide a complete package from providing a tent to the food, sitting arrangements, generators, lights, music system and all other facilities according to the customer requirements leaving them satisfied. Outdoor caterers pose a threat to marriage halls as it allows consumers to arrange the function with outsourcing different materials from different people and arranging their function according to their needs and budget. 2.3 Comparative Analysis 2.3.1. Industry Overview of Marriage Halls in India India being rich in its culture, history rituals and customs in all aspects surpasses all countries and is known to have the best lavish wedding ceremonies all over the world. All industries in India have been affected tremendously with the financial slum being faced by India, but somehow the marriage hall industry has been able to survive and people spend more money on marriages and perceive to have a life time experience spending as much as they can. The demand for weddings in India has increased and the numbers show that weddings have increased every year. The Wedding season in India takes place in October and all the marriage halls in New Delhi are booked a month before. Indias wedding industry is flourishing as not just the halls but the wedding planners, designers, jewellers, beauty parlours now cash on the wedding season by providing different ways of organizing weddings. Weddings in India are more taken as a an event t spend large amount not by the upper class but the middle class to project their wealth having a status symbol. Wedding Planners in India provide all services from marriage halls to arranging the whole event within the consumers budget making it a customized service for people to pay high fees. People are now more aware of the changing trends in arranging marriages they do not want a simple five-star hotel wedding but a customized wedding. With the increase in purchasing power of the consumers in India people now have more income and spend more on weddings. Indias wedding industry is growing faster and bigger day by day, with people trying to overdo each other as to whose wedding arrangement is better. According to experts its been stated that a single wedding now normally takes 1.5 crore without jewellery. Indias wedding business is flourishing as now new designers are capitalizing on the opportunities in India. Indias wedding business is the best business to invest as it has large profit margins and because of people increased income, and increase in purchasing power they spend more on weddings allowing wedding related services to earn more. Fewer auspicious days, as marriages are arranged only on auspicious days as Hindus place a lot of emphasis on astrology, the industry faces seasonal revenue. In case of unfavourable planetary combination as per astrology marriages are postponed. This act as a barrier for the growth of wedding planner. Furthermore as large number of marriages across country takes place on few selected dates this give rise to the possibility that wedding planner may not be able to capture additional market share.22Marriages in India take place seasonally as majority of the Hindus believe in astrology. This restricts wedding planners on capturing the market share apart from the seasonal dates. This is a restriction for the wedding planners to earn high revenues and is a challenged faced by them. 2.3.2. Industry Overview of Marriage Halls in China Chinese wedding industry has been glooming from past 5 years with a rise in number of marriages each year. The increase in the spending on weddings in China is attributed mainly because of economic, increase in disposable income and cultural change. Wedding expenditures have increased mainly in the urban areas of China accounting to 70% wedding day expenses. The cultural change has a strong impact on the increase on the wedding expenses due to the different government policies including one child policy. Parents want to spend large amounts of money of their childs wedding as they just have one child and desire to have a dream wedding for their child. Other factors contributing to the increase in the wedding expenses is the traditional arrangements and economic factors. Having a new house, household accessories after wedding has become a necessity as before wedding children live with parents and after marriage live separately. The spending habit of chinese people and the increase in disposable income increase the spending on weddings. 30% of savings are spend on weddings of every person in China. With the rise in the number of marriages each year and the increase in wedding expenditures businesses in China have taken it as an advantage and strengthened the wedding industry by providing specialized wedding services and increasing revenue. 2.4 Research Question Rising trend in marriage halls in Gulberg and Garden Town from 2007-2012 in Lahore Pakistan 3 Methodology:- The methodology I will be using to research and analyze the rising trend in marriage halls in Pakistan is by conducting Interviews Survey Study Questionnaires Examination of Secondary Data To gain in depth knowledge of the marriage halls in Lahore I conducted a survey study following the steps mentioned by Campbell and Katrina (1953) in the book Essentials of research design and methodology. Campbell and Katona (1953) delineated nine general steps for conducting a survey. Although this list is more than 50 years old, it is as useful now as it was then in providing a clear overview of survey procedures. The nine steps are as follows: 1. General objectives: This step involves de ¬Ã‚ ning the general purpose and goal of the survey. 2. Speci ¬Ã‚ c objectives: This step involves developing more speci ¬Ã‚ city regarding the types of data that will be collected, and specifying the hypothesis to be tested. 3. Sample: The major foci of this step are to determine the speci ¬Ã‚ c population that will be surveyed, to decide on an appropriate sample, and to determine the criteria that will be use