Saturday, August 31, 2019

Culture, Folkways Vs Mores Essay

Culture Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other hand, as conditioning influences upon further action. Culture in its broadest sense is cultivated behavior; that is the totality of a person’s learned, accumulated experience which is socially transmitted, or more briefly, behavior through social learning. Folkways Vs Mores The world is one, big community which is made up of several different societies that are distinct from one another. These societies have their own history, laws, beliefs, traditions, practices, customs, and ways of life. These make each society different and shape how their people act. Even a nation or country can have societies or ethnic groups that differ, each according to their own customs, traditions, and religions which they have followed from their ancestors. These beliefs, habits, practices, rules, customs, traditions, and manners are called by different names. They are called etiquette, decorum, propriety, values, virtues, folkways, and mores. While these terms may have similar meanings, they have different connotations. Folkways are shared customs or beliefs that have become part of the common culture of a group or society. They are habits of a certain individual that has been generally accepted by society and which are followed by its other members. It is a term which was introduced in 1907 by William Graham Sumner, an American sociologist. He defined it as informal social conventions which have no moral importance but became the customary behavior of the group because of their repetition. They are the feelings, thinking, and actions which slowly developed as men repeatedly use them to satisfy their basic needs. In time, these habits become widely accepted, constant, and more positive becoming into a way of life and turning into folkways. Mores, on the other hand, are moral customs, manners, traditions, and conventions of a social group or society. They are the values, virtues, and norms of society that define how they should act and interact with each other. They are developed from the established practices of a group of people and not from their laws. Some of these practices may be approved by society or not while others may be tolerated or not by members of the group. The term â€Å"mores† comes from the Latin word â€Å"mores† which means â€Å"customs, manners, or morals.† It has been used in the English language since the late 19th century. Summary: 1.Folkways are habits of individuals or of a group of people which have been accepted and followed by its members and eventually became accepted as a way of life while mores are moral customs and traditions that are shared by a group of people that makes up a society. 2.Folkways are informal social conventions with no moral significance while mores are social conventions that are morally significant. 3.Both terms were first used during the early 1900s. While the word â€Å"mores† comes from Latin, the word â€Å"folkways† was introduced by American sociologist William Graham Sumner. 4.Both folkways and mores were developed from the people’s habitual actions and not from society’s laws; folkways in a way are a certain type of mores. 5.While both folkways and mores instruct people on how they should act, mores, which represent the values of a group, are stricter while folkways are the feelings, thinking, and actions of a group and are less strict

Friday, August 30, 2019

Personal Health Records Essay

Abstract A personal health record (PHR) is a universal tool that consists of a comprehensive database of an individuals health documents. Personal health records are available in a variety of platforms, such as paper, the internet, personal computers, and portable devices. This paper describes the contents included in a personal health record as well as the steps to putting together a personal heath record. The advantages of having a personal health record can be a life saver. Patients can control their own health records and play a proactive role in better managing their personal health care information. Several concerns remain an issue with personal health records, issues such as security and privacy, costs, and lack of standardization. Have you ever wondered what to do with all your immunization records or old medical records you collected over the years and have stuffed away in a multiple places throughout your home? That is because until recently, individuals didn’t have a place to properly store their personal medical records. Everyone has a different system of how they maintain their personal health records, from an old shoe box, to â€Å"the special drawer† or the over stuffed file folder. There are several problems associated with these kind of record keeping practices. First of all, they are not safe or secure in the event of theft or fire. Secondly, it is difficult to manage your health from a file folder. Papers documents collected over a persons lifetime can be enormous, especially in the event of a long term illness. It is a daunting task to gather up all your paper documents saved over the past several years and present them in one big disorganized pile to a health care worker and expect them to sort it out. Because of the demands in healthcare and on healthcare workers, there has been an recent surge in the area of personal health records development. Several companies and researchers have developed simple and creative ways for individuals to maintain their personal health records, in addition to easily integrating their records into clinical healthcare systems. A personal health record is a way that individuals can gather all there medical information and place it into one safe and secure place. Personal health records are a gathering of an individuals medical data from several different sources and making them readily accessible in one or another format when needed. Sources where one might collect medical information are: clinics, multiple doctors offices, laboratories, pharmacies, radiology departments, hospitals, insurance companies, and the military, etc. Not to confuse anyone, but a personal health record or a electronic personal health record is not the same as a electronic health record. A personal health record is used by an individual and they control who can see or use the information in it. Other people, such as their doctor, may be able to add information to it. An electronic health record is used and controlled by health care providers. Electronic health records may be stored at a doctor’s office, a hospital, an insurance company, or an employer. (â€Å"NIH Medicine Plus,† pgs. 16-17) Electronic health records are legally mandated notes on the care provided by clinicians to patients. There is no legal mandate on personal health records.(Wikipedia, n.d) Creating an comprehensive personal health record can be life saving for several reasons. One reason being, in the case of an emergency, medical personal need accurate up to date data in order to provide an individual with the most proficient care available. For example, for the first time in history at any mass gathering, many of the people’s personal electronic health records were instantly, securely available to medical personnel at the world-famous Indy 500 motor race. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway’s Clarian Emergency Medical Center ha d access to those records, thanks to the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC). The data include admission and discharge notes, lab test results, and other critical information. A personal electronic health record is medical information about an individual that is stored in secure digital form on a computer or a network of computers. The goal of many in the health-care field is to have that information available instantly to health professionals wherever you are—even at The 500. (â€Å"NIH Medicine Plus,† pgs. 16-17) Putting together a personal health record is a great way to take control of your health. A Personal health record is initiated and maintained by an individual. From using something as simple as a notebook, a file folder, or buying a program or using a password protected website, creating a personal health record is becoming more readily available than ever before. Web sites such a Google Health or Microsoft Health Vault are just a few of the many web based companies cashing in on the personal health record market. Most of these web sites provide secure password protected access to some health insurers, pharmacies, and providers so you can request and upload your records, saving yourself some work. Some of the tools found on these web sites can help track and record your progress towards your health goals, such as weight loss and nutrition. Keeps track of doctor visits and information to share with your doctor, such as blood sugars, cholesterol, and blood pressure since your last appo intment. Electronic personal heath record websites help to diminish the hassle of scheduling appointments, submitting insurance claims, ordering prescriptions or refills by automatically doing it for you. Additional tools include monitoring devices such as a pacemaker check or blood sugar/insulin calculator to ordering prescriptions. Flags recent medication or discharge instructions from your last visit. Costs may vary depending on the type of personal health record being used. Using a computer based personal health record can be as easy as checking your e-mail. Personal health records are offered by a variety of sources—employers, insurers, healthcare organizations, and companies that aren’t in the healthcare arena. Kaiser Permanente said in April that more than 3 million of its 8.6 million members use its My Health Manager system to access their records, make appointments, look at lab results, and order prescriptions.(Hobson, 2009) PHRs can contain a diverse range of data and may include information such as: 1.Name, birth date, blood type 2.Emergency contact(s) 3.Primary caregiver(s)/phone number 4.Medicines, dosages, and how long taken, including over the counter and herbal remedies 5.Allergies/adverse drug reactions 6.Date of last physical 7.Dates/results of tests and screenings 8.Major illnesses/surgeries/procedures and their dates/hospitalizations 9.Chronic diseases 10.Family illness history 11.vaccinations/immunization records 12.laboratory test results 13.imaging reports 14.Activities of daily living 15.Health insurance information 16.Spiritual or Religious Preferences 17.Advance Directives What not to include in your personal health record: 1. your social security number 2. home address 3. telephone number Use caution when placing your personal information on the internet. Using information that identifies you too closely can lead to identity theft, even medical identity theft. Medical identity theft is when someone steals your insurance information and makes medical appointments in your name and orders prescription medications. Reports cite 200,000 cases of medical identity theft each year. (Torrey, 2010) One advantage to using a web-site for posting your PHR is having the ability to access your medical records from almost anywhere, anytime, as well as helping keep your records updated and current. Using a PHR helps to eliminate duplicate tests, which saves both time and money. In addition, instead of waiting for the usual 7-10 days for lab results to be mailed to you, systems can automatically upload the information to the PHR once they become available. Not only does this help with patient satisfaction, but is an enormous savings on mailing and handling costs. One of the obstacles and concerns of creating a personal health record is security and privacy of individuals records. Many consumers wonder whether their health information is kept private and secure in an electronic health record system. There are several PHR web providers that would love nothing better than to sell your information to advertisers. Although there are several good programs, consumers need to use caution when selecting an online program. Most companies use encrypted programs to protect unwanted and unauthorized access to an individuals personal health records. Many individuals continue to use paper records for their personal health records. However, with the invention of modern computer record keeping programs, paper records may not be as effective for the care of individuals with chronic illnesses. Some individuals have a long history of medical problems and have accumulated volumes of paper medical records. Paper records are not readily available at multiple locations at once and often present with an inconsistently of information. An individual with a chronic illness may benefit from transferring their paper records into an electronic personal health records program, which will aid in improving their continuity of care and efficiency. Many personal health care programs offer services that will help guide individuals on the how to of scanning and uploading their paper records into the program. Another benefit to using an electronic program is having your personal information formatted into a standard reporting structures for charting and sharing information and making it easier and faster for healthcare workers to review medical history and treat an individual. For example, a doctor can order a test for a patient and have the results transmitted to a their PDA and in turn can review the patients medical information and order further tests, medications and treatments at their convenience. This not only saves time for the patient, but frees the doctor from making frequent trips to the various locations to see patients or review results of tests. The results are then immediately uploaded into the patients personal health records. (Mohammod, 2009) For example, a newly diagnosed insulin dependent diabetic may have concerns with the dosages of their insulin and sliding scales plus managing their diet. Tools included in some of the personal health record programs will smooth the progress of mapping out a diabetics progress as well as offering a plethora of educational sites and suggestions and feedback, including alerts being sent to the physician or nurse if their blood sugar enters into a dangerous zone.(SentinelNewsService, 2009) Nursing related issues and Personal health records are becoming more challenging then ever before. As progress towards digitizing healthcare evolves, nurses are caught in between the paper documentation to electronic documentation chaos. Nurses must play an proactive role in educating themselves to the variety of personal health record information that is readily available for their patients. Many patients are unaware of the services available to them and a healthcare provider must often help inspire their patients along their personal journey of creating a personal health record. Moreover, a nurse that is proactive with helping patients with their personal health records, will also encourage a patient to healthy behaviors, by teaching patients how to use tools to keep track of their health progress, such as weight loss and diet control. Encouraging a patient to keep better track of their healthcare records will be invaluable for patients with chronic illnesses. Providing up to date information in one document to a health care provider not only saves time and money, but assists the health care provider in providing safer and improved quality of care as well as a better way of communicating with their providers. As a nurse, it can be very frustrating taking a health history on a patient with a chronic illness with a long list of medications. Often, patients are poor historians or don’t remember the name of a drug or dosage. Nurses can spend well over an hour just gathering information about the patients history before they can begin to treat the patients problem. It is always a welcoming sign of relief when a patient produces an itemized list of all their medications and dosages as well as their past medical history. The time spent gathering all the patients information could be better spent on giving more personal care to the patient as well as the other patients in the nurses care.(Sensmeier, 2010, p. 47-50) Physicians have their own issues and concerns related to personal health records. First of all, most physicians are mostly interested in providing safe, resourceful and revenue producing care. Physicians are slow to adapt to change and it is difficult to convince a physician to use a service for something that may not produce results for many years. Personal health records are in their infancy stages and are only a hand full of individuals are utilizing the services. Physicians as well other medical personal may not be educated on personal health records and are not obligated to review or edit or manage these type of records. However, once a document from a patients personal health record is imported into an Electronic medical record, the physician is then responsible for reviewing such data. Physicians are then responsible for maintaining the accuracy of the data exported to the patients personal health record. Another concern is the issue of compensation. How are physicians going t o be compensated for their time spent on training, implementation, updating and creating documents for PHR? Also, covering the costs associated with the hiring of new staff that will be needed to head such a plan, as well as purchasing the required equipment and software that will be used to interface with larger networks?(â€Å"American College for Physicians,† 2006, p. 1-2) Personal health records have a direct impact on the role of the nursing informatics specialist. One of the roles of a nursing informatics specialist is reviewing, analyzing and coordinating new applications across departments and determine how the new applications will best fit into a healthcare system effectively. One of the biggest concerns of any healthcare system is cost, the cost of a new program or application must be carefully scrutinized by the nursing informatics specialist as well as other personal within the healthcare system before being accepted into the system. Several questions that arise from the nursing informatics specialist may include: 1.Revenue enhancement 2.Cost containment 3.Broad-spectrum cohesiveness throughout the system 4.Better workflow processes 5.Government regulations 6.Patient safety/satisfaction 7.Implementation and Development 8.Data interfaces 9.Troubleshooting and training 10.Software/equipment issues 11.Standardization development A key concern to most healthcare systems is the inevitability of employing such systems. Healthcare systems will eventually be forced into implementing such programs. The future of healthcare is rapidly becoming more digitalized and will be dictated by the consumers demands and systems that can better accommodate such demands. The next generation of computer savvy consumers and evolving healthcare technologies is on the forefront of nursing informatics specialists agendas. Nursing informatics specialists are scrambling to keep up with technology and developing savvy ways of keeping up with current trends in healthcare. Currently, there is very little data related to the purchasing costs of commercial PHR applications which presents a problem to the NIS. Not only is PHR a cost concern problem, but anytime a new product as enormous as PHR applications are lingering over a health care systems head, it becomes a system wide concern because the future is so unpredictable and health care systems can’t afford to spend millions of dollars on the implementation of such systems and then the system becomes obsolete within a year after implementation. A nursing information specialist’s input is critical in healthcare systems decision making process. Every day you hear of a new process or a new policy related to healthcare. Nursing information specialists are fairly new to the healthcare scene and are instantaneously being propelled into unfamiliar and never heard of areas of healthcare. A NIS must hold on tight to their game hat and be prepared to handle the roller coaster ride of the unpredicted future of healthcare technology. (Shah, Kaelber, Adam, Pan, Middleton & Johnston, 2008) The standardization of personal health records is an ongoing concern among consumers and the healthcare industry. There are many standards, open specifications, and efforts toward standardization of PHR information, and services. Many organizations are actively working to improve and support the exchange of medical record information.(â€Å"Records for Living,† 2010) Because there is not set standard among PHR vendors and health care organizations, the present recommendation is to adopt data content and exchange standards that are based upon standards accepted for EHRs, as a way of improving the interoperability of the systems. In addition, it is important for consumers to understand the privacy policies and practices of PHR vendors and health care organizations and who may have secondary access to their personal information. Also, these agencies should address any language barrier issues preventing the consumer from fully understanding the agencies practices related to security and privacy. Since HIPPA does not cover all PHR systems, consumers should be provided a complete outline of the uses of their PHR data and not covered entities should voluntarily adopt to strict privacy policies and practices. No health information provided to a PHR agency should be used without the expressed consent or authorization of the consumer. (US dept. of Health a nd Human Services, 2010) President Bush and Secretary Leavitt have put forward a vision that, in the Secretary’s words, â€Å"would create a personal health record that patients, doctors and other health care providers could securely access through the Internet no matter where a patient is seeking medical care.† (US dept. of Health and Human Services, 2010) Before those famous words can be put into effect, there first, must be a global standardization and recognized language. Currently, there is no uniform definition of â€Å"personal health records†, therefore making collaboration and policy-making difficult. The following aspects of PHRs can vary: 1.what information is allowed on a PHR and reliable sources of the information 3.features and functions offered 4.custodian of the record location of the contents 6.authorized access to records and security standards Additionally, organizations will continue to discover gaps during the development phases of PHR, by collecting data and information, agencies can make recommendations and respond with appropriate action. Providing readily accessible, safe and reliable data through secure systems of communication will help to better serve consumers, patients, healthcare workers and federal and public agencies, and others far more effectively. However, there is a general concern for the underserved populations. There are several areas of the country that do not have access to such systems or have the resources or funds to purchase such systems. Also, there are educational barriers to consider in relation to health literacy issues which could limit the use of PHR systems in these underserved populations. With so many people out of work and living on welfare, there are far greater concerns than having a PHR. Many people are only concerned with their basic survival and having enough resources to provide a meal or heat to their families. The government would need to provide assistance to the underserved if this was required of them. In conclusion, as a nurse and a potential consumer, I am in favor of a electronic personal heath record and do think the pros of such systems outweigh the cons, especially in the case of the chronically ill. I do, however have many concerns with PHRs. As a nurse, it would be difficult to rely on data presented in a electronic personal health record unless I was able to verify the information with a physician treating the individual or a family member. I can see how easily an individual may inadvertently enter the wrong medication into their personal health record. A simple slip of the key may change a medication entered as a diabetes drug Amaryl instead of an Alzheimer’s medication called Reminyl. Pharmaceutical companies are working hard to prevent medications from being named something similar to other drugs currently on the market, but there have been several reported deaths due to medication errors. It should be required that a government monitoring agency be in charge of overseeing the content being entered into PHRs as well as protecting consumers from becoming the victim of targeted marketing scams or identity theft. Too often we hear of these things happening to unknowing victims and unfortunately most of these victims are the elderly, which will more than likely be one of the biggest consumers of this kind of service. The government will also need to set standards for protecting consumers, otherwise, if consumers are being victimized on these kind of systems, PHR could potentially suffer harm and loose the trust of consumers. The widespread adoption of PHRs will not happen until consumers are confident with their personal records being adequately protected. I think it is important to get consumers and patients more involved in their own healthcare. And one of the first steps is learning how to create their own personal health record. Not only can they learn to create their own PHR, but they could get there family and friends involved as well. Using an Internet-based PHR system allows for multiple individuals, such as family members and caregivers to contribute patient information from multiple locations. For example, a sibling that lives out of town may have the access to update their parents health information and also share the information with another sibling who lives out of town and both collaborate on the information provided. This allows for continuity of care in the event of an illness and the sibling is not directly available to be at their parents bedside. The personal health record will play a key role in motivating the consumer or patient to a safer, more efficient form of healthcare. Because personal health records are still in their infancy stages, there remains a great deal of concern for the safety and security for the users personal information. Once these concerns are addressed and â€Å"idiot- proofed†, consumers and health care facilities may buy into it. Personal health care records are designed to help individuals better organize their health care records by placing all their documents into one easily accessible format. This kind of application can be a life saver. Having all of a patients up to date information available for healthcare personal to review in one easy to read format may make the difference between life and death in some cases. Quickly identifying drug allergies, medications, health history is all a part of the vital information needed in the case of any emergency. There is a myth among most consumers, most consumers believe that emergency rooms should have access to their medical records in the event of a crisis and the truth is, they don’t. Many patients see several doctors from a variety of locations and emergency rooms don’t have immediate access to all of a patients medical information. A personal health record not only allows you to share information with health care providers at multiple locations , it also empowers the consumer or patient to better manage their own health goals. Building a health record takes a considerable amount of time and effort. You have to collect all your past medical documents and manually enter them into a PHR platform of your choice. After that, it is as simple as scanning or faxing in a document or entering the information manually into a system after each visit to the doctor, or test, which keeps your medical records current and updated. Term Paper References EHR/PHR Basics. (pgs. 16-17). Retrieved March 12th, 2011, from Hobson, K. (2009). Time to switch to an online personal health record? Retrieved March 11th, 2011, from Mohammod (2009). Encyclopedia of Personal Health Records – Paper Records. Retrieved March 12th, 2011, from Personal Health Records Policy Statements Adopted by the American College of Physicians. (2006). Retrieved March 10th, 2011, from Personal Health Records Standards. (2010). Retrieved March 13th, 2011, from Sensmeier, J. E. (2010). Tech update:the journey toward a personal health record. Retrieved March 11th, 2011, from SentinelNewsService. (2009). Nurses Engineer lead efforts to radically change personal health records. Retrieved March 11th, 2011, from Shah, S., Kaelber, D., Adam, V., Pan, E., & Johnston, D. (2008). A Cost Model for Personal Health Records. Retrieved March 13th, 2011, from Torrey, T. (2010). Avoiding the consequences of medical identity theft. Retrieved March 11th, 2011, from US dept. of Health and Human Services. (2010). Personal Health Records and Personal Health Records Systems. Retrieved March 13th, 2011, from Wikipedia. (n.d). Personal Health Records. Retrieved March 12th, 2011, from

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Analysing An Essay On Criticism Poem English Literature Essay

Analysing An Essay On Criticism Poem English Literature Essay In the world of seventeenth century poetry, no poet exists in isolation. Not simply by being part of a club, such as Pope’s membership of the Scriblerus Club, but as being members of a particular class, a particular religion or a particular political outlook. Born into a Catholic family at a time when being Catholic meant being denied educational and political opportunities, may not have significantly influenced Pope worldview, but neither can such a fact be completely ignored. In this essay I shall argue that An Essay on Criticism is not a straight-forward treatise of writing poetry or indeed criticism, but rather a strong political and religious polemic. In a time of societal and political flux the intelligentsias of an age are often heavily influenced by the events which surround them. With the beginnings, albeit faltering beginnings of the industrial age, with many swapping traditional rural lifestyles to more urban settings, not least due to the ‘enclosure’ laws (a prohibition for rural dwellers from use of common acreage fodder (1), and the ever growing demand for workers in cities, coupled with new religious philosophies emerging from Europe from Luther and Calvin, in turn affecting political philosophies, the poets of the day could not remain immune to this change of landscape. That self same ‘landscape’ lay at the heart of early seventeenth century poets concerns expressed in poetry referred to a ‘pastorals’. But the approach to these poems, which attempted to define the new landscape and man’s role in it, could not have been more different. Two distinct factions emerged, one led by Ambrose Philip, the other by Alexander Pope. The former an adherent of the view of man as an individual, the latter, of the view that man’s role is primarily as a societal being, rather than an individual being. And what lay at the center of these views was no less than the future of mankind, at least as far as th ese two protagonists were concerned. Pope had already distinguished himself with the publication of Pastorals in 1709 before writing An Essay on Criticism at the relatively young age of twenty three. In this poem, which follows the Epic form, albeit in apparently less somber fashion than the Golden Age of Homer, Virgil and Ovid which influenced it, Pope offers his opinion on what exactly is or is not the essence and significance of poetry. Or at least, it may seem so at first glance. His opening four lines from part one:                      Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill                      Appear in writing or in judging ill;                      But, of the two, less dang’rous is th’ offence                      To tire our patience, than mislead our sense. (3) offers in many ways a synopsis of his entire treatise. That is, it’s one thing to read or write bad or annoying poetry, it’s a n entirely different affair to ‘mislead our sense’. Immediately what’s at stake is presented. An Essay on Criticism is not simply a dig at bad poets or bad poetry, but a real concern of what thinking, or what ‘sense’ may result from such work if left unchallenged. His lines 7 & 8, reiterate what is at stake:

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Goals and Objectives Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Goals and Objectives - Essay Example I was very excited and enthusiastic about this job as it would land me an opportunity to meet new people and learn about their lifestyles. It would also help me to improve my interpersonal, communication skills and confidence. Everyday I used to meet number of people and my interaction with them helped me improve my English language as well. I knew that if I excelled in that job, it would serve as a stepping stone for many greater things ahead in my future. It would make my personality better and make me more presentable in front of people. This job was a good opportunity to get the basic training needed to succeed in this industry. My aim was to gain as much confidence as possible and improve my interpersonal skills from this position and then seek a higher position such as team leader or assistant manager. The nature of my job as a sales advisor, as stated earlier, involved meeting many people during the day. This has taught me many things and has changed me as an individual. I have learned to be more patient in life and how to deal with tensed and stressful situations in a calm, composed manner. For example; I am often faced with the challenge of satisfying many customers’ demands at the same time. These kinds of situations have also taught me to think quickly and respond to difficult situations. I have learned to think fast and say the appropriate thing in difficult situations. This job has given me the opportunity to improve my communication skills. When I started working at Superdrug, the company started organizing seminars for new employees. A personal trainer was appointed to me to guide me through the initial days of my job at the respective company. Around that time, the assistant manager gave me a book that I was supposed to complete and submit by the end of December that year. This book had around 100 pages in it, consisting of questions related to my job, about the company, its products and company policies etc. I carried out this

Tuesday, August 27, 2019


OXIDATION OF METHIONINE BY SINGLET OXYGEN - Essay Example Transition metal complexes as photosensitizers 16 Semiconductors 17 Immobilized photosensitizers 17 Methionine oxidation 18 Determination of singlet oxygen 21 Aims 24 Materials and methods 25 General Information 25 Oxygen measurements 25 Singlet oxygen consumption at different methionine concentrations 26 Singlet oxygen consumption induced by laser. 27 Results and discussion 27 Conclusions 47 References: 49 Abstract The methionine oxidation reaction using singlet oxygen was studied. Initially this report is focused on presenting the overview of works associated with the topic. Singlet oxygen is described along with the ways it is formed. It was highlighted that singlet oxygen was a more powerful oxidant then triplet oxygen and the types of oxidation pathways are described. The practical aspect of this research is focused on using a photosensitizer, Rose Bengal, to generate singlet oxygen. This is the reason for giving a short overview of photosensitizers is given making focus on the behaviour of Rose Bengal and compounds similar to it in structure. Methionine oxidation mechanism is also described as well as function of oxygen electrode. In order to research the topic of methionine oxidation by singlet oxygen two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment a series of methionine solutions with different concentrations were prepared. In each case Rose Bengal was added as a photosensitizer. As it was established, the rate of oxygen consumption depends on methionine concentration in the solution being the highest at the lowest concentration of methionine. The process was followed by Michaelis-Menten kinetics therefore the corresponding equations were used to construct Lineweaver-Burke plot and determine the maximum rate of the oxidation reaction as well as the line slope. The second experiment utilised a more vigorous approach. A laser pulse was employed to produce singlet oxygen molecules in the dye containing methionine solution. And by employing various concentrations of methionine and Rose Bengal as photosensitizer construct oxygen consumption plots along with determination of variation of centre-of mass d istance and potential energy of the reacting molecules. Methionine oxidation was also described using SPARTAN calculations and the reaction mechanism was presented. This report is initially focused on describing the key literature associated with oxidation of methionine by singlet oxygen, highlighting relevant for the project issues and arguments, then moving on to presenting the research that has been done so far, making accent on the methods used and results achieved, before finally identifying the existing gaps in the study and setting up a plan for future work. Introduction Oxygen was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1775 (Priestley, 1775). Later, Avagadro described the diatomic nature of oxygen, and the paramagnetic properties of this diatomic gas were studied by Faraday in 1811. Differences between oxygen and other gases such as helium or nitrogen were also investigated (Parkes, 1967). Later in 1928, using molecular orbital theory, it was established that oxygen is paramagnet ic due to the presence of the parallel spins of two electrons occupying the outer shell. This form with uncoupled electron pair was named triplet oxygen. Spectroscopy was used to prove the existence of higher energy state, which later was called singlet oxygen (Herzberg, 1934). In the singlet form of this molecule outer-shell electrons are paired in antiparallel spins. Initially, the importance of singlet oxygen was not recognised. It was rediscovered in 1964 in photooxidation experiments and since then became intensively studied. Over the past twenty five years significant increase in data regarding singlet oxygen has led to the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Reflection Paper #2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reflection Paper #2 - Essay Example Moreover, I believe that loyalty as a value means a lot to me. A part from making me have a peace of mind, it can improve my interpersonal relations especially with my seniors and colleagues. Lastly, helpfulness is also a value which I should always uphold. It is necessary for my success as an ethical leader as it puts me in the right path of being concerned about and responsible for others. Each of these values is very important for me. Therefore, I can integrate them into my leadership style through commitment, sacrifice and continued practice. This will make me to become a model leader whose ethical leadership style should be emulated. At the same time, these values should always be applied when confronted with any situation which requires an informed and rational decision-making. As an individual, I am aware of my strengths and weaknesses. In this regard, it is my pleasure to point out that hard work, sincerity, determination, discipline and team work top the list of my greatest strengths. It is these qualities which have made me to be whom I am. I came to know about them after conducting a self-assessment. This was based on my previous performances in comparison to my colleagues and the social expectations. However, having known my strengths, I would have to make a good use of them as I plan to prepare myself to be the most desirable ethical leader in the society. Indeed, their effective application would enamel me to achieve this

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Definition of law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Definition of law - Essay Example If the sovereign or its laws are illegitimate then do their sanctions imposed on individuals or groups who do not comply with the laws, legal In examining cases where the legitimacy of the authority is left in doubt, we must determine whether the authority's legal system and laws are morally justified in making the laws or whether they violate human rights in objectionable ways. All countries create and adhere to their own rules of law when punishing offenders. In many cases, appropriate punishment is dealt for the severity of the crime committed. The more brutal the crime, the harsher the punishment. But there are nations that impose extreme retribution for even minor misdemeanors, China being a case in point. Each year thousands of Chinese citizens are put to death for petty offences. Many are carried out in secret and thus go unreported. Exactly what criteria nations like these employ to deal out this kind of punishment is a question that compels the investigation of different kinds of laws that operate on a society. Law of nature deals with morality and the theory tries to recognize a moral compass to guide in the creation of laws (Wikipedia). Usually feelings and notions of what is right and wrong are the underlying principles governing natural law. This could vary greatly depending on various interests. In the case of the countries forming the European Union which signed the Second Optional Protocol, these nations abolished capital punishment. The natural law here has prevailed and won over hearts and minds of leaders and lawmakers into agreeing that capital punishment is wrong and should be eradicated. In nations that retain capital punishment, natural law has not taken roots in governance. Natural law decrees that anything morally 'right' is law and anything 'unjust' is not a part of natural law. Theorists say that punishment carried out without the use of natural law will be judged by 'higher powers' - that divine retribution will take its course. Natural laws gain respect and credibility when they meet certain requirements such as being impartial and existing in the realm of public knowledge. Without these fundamental requirements the laws are less likely to be recognized or treated with much regard. Legal positivism or positive law is law that can be changed or updated depending on circumstances. For example abortion can be legal today but illegal tomorrow (Wikipedia). Cigarette advertising may be permissible today but prohibited tomorrow. Alcohol can be banned in world cup football venues to prevent hooliganism but not at local football events. There are many advantages with flexible laws. They can be adapted depending on the circumstances and needs of society at any given time. Newly elected governments placed in office can relax some laws but enforce other existing ones. On the internet, most websites have a 'terms and conditions' or 'terms of use' clause. These may be modified over time to keep up with changes made to the site and also either curtail misuse of the site or, encourage users to take advantage

Auguste Comte Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Auguste Comte - Research Paper Example Comte’s success in defining sociology from an all-embracive or universal perceptive provokes the frontiers of other branches of knowledge to accept it and utilize in various purposes. Due to these harmonious relations of sociology with other sciences, scholars were inspired to consider it as science and they began to consider human being as well as his society and culture as a subject matter of this branch of knowledge. According to Comte, the preamble of sociology is considered to be embedded in his Positive Philosophy, that is, Positivism. After theoretically reviewing all the origins of all sciences he comes to a conclusion that human knowledge about has gone along three different stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. The later, according to Comte, is Positivism. Therefore it is evident that Comte’s Positivism involves the scientific exploration of human society and thus â€Å"sociology† emerges as a branch of human knowledge. In fact, the polysemu s connotation of the scientific exploration of society provokes him to use the term â€Å"positivism†. At the theological phase, the knowledge of society basically comes from how religion and religious beliefs tend to define it. This theological view is based on the dogmatic doctrine of religion that is devoid of any opposition unless another religious view comes up with a set of totally different dogmas. It defines man and society as the implementation of the will of God and the social rules and regulations are referenced to God. This view, in the first place, circumcises the scope of experimenting the validity of the religious doctrines of society under the blasphemous taboo. So according to Comte, it goes exclusively goes against the zeal of science. But the Enlightenment in Europe in the 19th Century challenged this superiority of religion to shape human and to determine the position of human

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Take a filed trip to a toy store or toy section of a sopping Essay

Take a filed trip to a toy store or toy section of a sopping center....... the rest of the question you will see it when i uploa - Essay Example Gender by itself is neutral and does not have any significance other than its biological function until society provided a meaning to it through social construct. In its primitive definition, gender through its genitalia only serves the call of nature to excrete waste from our body. As toddlers, we are not even aware of it nor cared about it because society’s definition and construct of gender roles is not yet imposed on us. Until of course we begin to grow up and begin to interact with her various elements that begun with our parents who call us boy or girl and assign us roles in multitude of ways from labeling us as boy or girl and with it, the expectation and the roles we should play. Thus, we are told not to do this or that because we are girl or boy or told to do this or that because we are a girl or boy as a part of instilling social construct to us. Toys help create and reinforce strict definitions of gender. Toy is one of the implements of society that effectively defi nes to us the meaning and significance of our gender. It helps us to reinforce what should be a male or female through the symbolism and functionality of toys. You can call it brainwashing because it practices to perform the roles and functions expected of us by society at large. For example, girls play dolls because they are expected to be nurturers and dolls serves as a practicing kit on how to perform such role. Boys on the other hand plays trade tools such as cars, helmet etch as a conditioning tool that they ought to have a craft or a job to be a man as a expected by society. These toys have social meanings as well. For the toys of the boys, they convey   Ã¢â‚¬Å"control, strength,  efficiency, competitiveness, toughness, coolness under pressure† (Flores, nd) while for the girls, their toys also orients them about †cooperation, mutuality, equality, sharing compassion, caring,...emotional expressiveness† (Johnson cited in Flores, nd). In a way, social constr uction perpetuates gender stereotyping as it already â€Å"boxes† us into gender roles beginning from our childhood. Such, when one enters a toy store as an adult, one cannot help but be drawn to the section to the gender that we are oriented to. The imposition of society’s social construction of gender manifests when we visit a store because we are drawn to the section of the toys (male or female section) where our respective genders are oriented or accustomed to. These toys however are more than tools of fun. They are also symbolisms of what is expected of us or as our training of the roles that we have to play in society. For example, As a male, one is expected to play only with toys that reinforce his gender role or identities. Role that is expected of him by his peers (which could be very strong if he is adolescent) to be strong, virile, rough and competitive. Thus, he would be expected to play cars, guns, robots, swords or any symbols of the toy that represent an d reinforce his virile masculinity which is necessary for his role in society. Women on the other hand will manifests similar attachment to toys that her gender is oriented to. She may find it uncomfortable to be in the men’s section of toy store and instead will play with dolls that reinforce her gender role. Thus, it would not be an exaggeration to say that social construction which is â€Å"how society groups people† exerts such a powerful influence on us that it dictates

Friday, August 23, 2019

Telework Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Telework - Article Example In this dissertation, we have attempted to bring out crucial factors that have contributed to the success of telework as a work practice specifically in electronic business to consumer (B2C) context. Teleworking has become possible recently due to increased affordability and availability of suitable technology coupled with a need to tap specific talent and widen the labor base without compromising, rather significantly improving output of the organization. For this dissertation, the research was conducted within specific limitations of full time employees conducting e-business operations using information technology working away from the conventional workplace. It was also ascertained as to which personality types preferred to telework, why they preferred to do so and how the organization derived maximum benefit from their individual traits by providing them with suitable business programs and necessary technology. Discussions with individuals at various levels in an organization and also between organizations were held for good understanding of the behaviour of management and employees, as well as ascertain the dynamics of successful teleworking.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Cronulla Riots Essay Example for Free

Cronulla Riots Essay The beachside suburb, known by residents as Gods Country, saw the spread of violence in a series of ethnically motivated confrontations in the week of December 11th 2005. This day saw the gathering of nearly 5000 people, most of Anglo Celtic background, some locals, some from other Sydney beachside suburbs such as Maroubra and Brighton, in order to reclaim the beach after two middle eastern youths attacked Cronulla lifesavers earlier in the week. The notification of the gathering was sent via mobile text to people all around Sydney, inviting them to join in the fight for Australians right to reclaim their beaches. Violence broke out due to a combination of mob mentality and alcohol and many ethnic individuals were attacked and assaulted. Signs and t-shirts read discriminatory sayings such as Fuck Allah, Save Nulla, Love it or Leave it, Wog Free Zone and We grew here, you flew here. The following nights saw incidents of retaliatory violence and vandalism by those of Middle Eastern decent; throughout Sydney, and from Wollongong to Newcastle protests of both sides were present. Police locked-down areas of Sydney including Western Sydney, guarding those who were to enter and leave and searched cars and checked identification for those entering the Sutherland Shire area to avoid the occurrence of further incidents. The fight divided many of Sydney, and called for Australians to address their notions of the identity of Australians or more specifically, what is to be Australian? the community was shock to see such violence in a quiet neighbourhood.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Mecican-American Culture in the Inland Empire Essay Example for Free

Mecican-American Culture in the Inland Empire Essay The area of California known as the Inland Empire, is comprised of Riverside, Ontario, and San Bernadino Counties, and is home to one of the largest, most concentrated populations of Mexican-Americans in the United States. As a result, the area has its own culture, its own style of music, dancing, art, and celebration. Ultimately, the culture of the Inland Empire is an American translation of cultural traditions that immigrants brought with them from Mexico, and they have created a world all their own. Life for Mexican immigrants to the United States, however, is not always easy. As a result, this is a high-risk population for mental illness and substance abuse. Certainly, the Inland Empire provides plenty of opportunities for the culturally aware social worker to provide help and services. According to a 2012 business report, fourteen cities in the Inland Empire have a majority Latino population. 2-million of the 4. 7 million residents in the area, are in fact Latino, suggesting a trend of growing Latino populations all over the United States (Gruszecki, 2012). The Inland Empire has a rich arts and culture landscape, with a strong emphasis on Mexican, and Mexican-American heritage. In a 2008 investigation into cultural engagement in southern California, the James Irving Foundation found that Hispanic populations in the Inland Empire tended to â€Å"practice traditions that represent their cultural heritage at higher than average rates and engage in community events that celebrate their heritage much more often than Whites,† (Brown et al, 9). The study surveyed thousands of people across the Inland Empire, and found that many Mexican-Americans in the area still celebrate many of the same holidays as their Mexican Ancestors, including Navidad, Virgin of Guadaloupe Day (Dec.12), Posadas, Cinco de Mayo, and Dia de Los Muertos (Brown et al, 74). Alamillo suggests that celebrating these holidays once in America may have been a way for the immigrants of the mid-twentieth century to â€Å"further the interests of the ethnic Mexican community† in the area, and the practice stuck (Alamillo, 57). He argues that â€Å"Mexican Americans used Cinco de Mayo festivals not only to promote ethnic solidarity, but as a tool of political opposition, (Alamillo, 59). Mexican culture is also notices in the types of stories that respondents to the James Irving Foundation survey reported that they’d brought with them to their new homes in the Inland Empire. These included many stories representing the strong family values of Mexican culture. Stories passed down from family, with family values, and those in traditional language were all among those types of stories that the study cites. Similarly, mariachi music followed Mexican immigrants to the US, as did making pinatas, dream catchers, and altars, as well as Flamenco and Pueblo dancing, (Brown et al, 77). One of the major problems among Mexican Americans, however, is often overlooked. It is thought that mental illness is more prevalent in Latino communities in the US than in white, non-Hispanic, or African American communities. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, Latino girls are one and a half times more likely than white or black teens to attempt suicide, and Mexican-American immigrants to the US are at a higher risk for mental disorders and substance abuse than their counterparts living in Mexico (NAMI, 2002). However, due to the stigma associated with mental illness in Latino communities, many suffering from mental illness do not seek out treatment. Those who do seek out treatment are often more likely to see a general practitioner or clergy than a mental health professional or social worker (NAMI, 2002). There is also a stigma against homosexuality in Mexican-American communities, which may contribute to the high risk of mental illness, substance abuse and suicide among homosexual immigrants. Many studies have shown that â€Å"homosexuality is stigmatized among U. S. residents of Mexican descent and, more generally, in Latino communities in the United States,† while only a couple have found Mexican attitudes towards homosexuality to be on par with those in black and white communities (Herek and Gonzalez-Rivera, 1). It is likely that the same reverence for family that influences the beliefs of many Mexican Americans, also influences their attitudes towards homosexual behavior, ultimately leading to the alienation of Mexican-American homosexuals. The Psychological Counseling Center of California State University at San Bernadino runs a website listing places to turn for help in the Inland Empire: http://psychcounseling. csusb . edu/referrals. html. For many Mexican Americans, the Catholic Charities may be a good option as they offer a fait-based approach to dealing with mental health issues. There are many options available to residents of the Inland Empire to get help right in their community. Mexican culture has a deep and rich tradition in the United States, especially in the Inland Empire. Immigrants celebrate their Mexican heritage as a way of holding on to the history, people and place from which they’ve come. Along with these rich traditions however, come opportunities for receiving help. Often when it comes to societal issues such as mental illness and substance abuse, communities will need the help of a social worker who understands their culture and can meet their diverse needs. References Alamillo, Jose. â€Å"More than a Fiesta: Ethnic Identity,Cultural Politics, and Cinco de Mayo Festivals inCorona, California, 1930-1950. † Aztlan 28:2, Fall2003. Retrieved 15 Feb, 2013. http://josealamillo. com/fiestaalamillo. pdf Brown, Alan S. , Novak, Jennifer L. , and Kitchener, Amy. â€Å"Cultural Engagement in California’s Inland Regions. †Research Commissioned by the James Irvine Foundation,September, 2008. Retrieved 15 Feb. 2013. http://www. southarts. org/atf/cf/%7B15E1E84E-C906-4F67-9851-A195A9BAAF79%7D/Arts%20Part%20-%20Cultural%20Engagement_FullReport. pdf Herek, Gregory, and Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagritos. â€Å"AttitudesToward Homosexuality Among U. S. Residents of MexicanDescent. † Journal of Sex Research43:2, 2006. Retrieved 5March, 2013http://psychology. ucdavis. edu/rainbow/html/JSR_2006_pre. PDF Gruszecki, Debra. â€Å"ECONOMY: Latino Population Shifts. †September 27, 2012. The Press-Enterprise. Retrieved 15Feb. 2013. http://www. pe. com/business/business-headlines/20120927-economy-latino-population-shifts. ece National Association on Mental Illness. â€Å"Latino Community MentalHealth Fact Sheet,† 2002. Retrieved 5 March, 2013http://www. nami. org/Content/NavigationMenu/Find_Support/Multicultural_Support/Annual_Minority_Mental_Healthcare_Symposia/Latino_MH06. pdf.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Evolution Of Telemedicine Health And Social Care Essay

The Evolution Of Telemedicine Health And Social Care Essay Who would have ever imagined that a doctors visit could be conducted through a phone-line, video, or the use of a computer 1000 plus miles away? Medical records can be view by another medical professional for a second opinion three counties away before you arrive. A radiologist in Singapore has diagnosis your femur fracture here in the United States. Medical diagnosis, treatment and consultations are being performed from miles away because of technology. It seems as if there is no limitation to the well being of a patient through a wide range of telemedicine services. What is telemedicine? According to the American Telemedicine Association telemedicine is the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve patients health status. Emails, videoconferencing, transmission of still images, e-health including patient portals, remote monitoring of vital signs, continuing medical education and nursing call centers are all considered part of telemedicine.( This interactive form of medical services has provided healthcare to individuals many miles away or minutes away in the comfort of their homes, physician offices and hospitals. Ways to communicate services Store-and -forward is a means of transmission of medical information to other medical professionals and facilities that will provide the recipient pertinent medical history, vital signs, medical records, lab results and images. Store-and-forward telemedicine systems have the ability to capture and store digital still or moving images of patients, as well as audio and text data. A store-and-forward system eliminates the need for the patient and the clinician to be available at the same time and place. Store-and-forward is therefore an asynchronous, no interactive form of telemedicine. It is usually employed as a clinical consultation (as opposed to an office or hospital visit). ( One of the major concerns with store and forward is whether it is as effective as face to face medical visits, does it have comparable outcomes, is it appropriate for appropriate medical management, is the patient truly satisfied with the outcome and level of services and is it cost effect ive? There are several benefits of store-and-forward technology. Patients in rural areas are able to be seen by specialty physician miles away when there is limited access to the services in the area. The store-and-forward of medical information is also being used with emergency response teams to communicate the information to the emergency room staff for an efficient transfer of vitals and medical status. The store and forward technology is said to be the least expensive way to communicate and the most accurate in real time for patients at a distance needing medical consultation. Another type of store and forward technology is videoconferencing technology. The two way television allows two doctors in two different areas to communicate to provide treatment, a diagnosis, or telesurgery. There are several healthcare areas that benefit from telemedicine Some of the common teleservices Telemedicine includes several medical disciplines that benefit from the services. Services like radiology, dermatology, nursing, pharmacy, pathology, neurology and psychiatry. The need for a second opinion in healthcare has seen a demand, and the shortage of specialty doctors in rural areas increased. The development of telemedicine has benefited the patient in many ways because of technology. Teleradiology- is the transmission of x-ray, CT, MRI, PET, and SPEC images that can be read by radiologist in another facility or country. The information is sent via the store and forward process of telemedicine. Large and small hospitals have began to use teleradiolgist to cut down on expense and having access to immediate diagnosis. Teledermatology- is the use of video conferencing and store and forward images to provide a consultation for an individual that requires a dermatologist. There have been concerns with the consistency of this tyoe of visit for patients due to unclear images of the skin and the possibility of not having that face to face visual from the dermatologist to make an adequate diagnosis. Telenurse- the use of phone, electronic email, videoconferencing, and computers to provide healthcare services or consultation to a patient. Telenusring has continued to grow in the areas of telephone triage for health insurance carriers. Telenursing has grown with interactive patient training related to changing wound dressings, insulin administering, self management of a patients health. Reimbursement Many of the healthcare providers must follow certain guidelines to receive payment for telemedicine. According to Medicare its condition for payment must include an interactive audio and video telecommunications system that is used and must permit real-time communication between the physician or practitioner at the distant site and the beneficiary at the originating site. The medical providers that are covered under this fee for payment are services rendered by a physician, nurse, physician assistant, midwife, clinical nurse specialist, or clinical psychologist. The current list of Medicare telehealth services includes: Consultations Office or other outpatient visits Individual psychotherapy Pharmacologic management Psychiatric diagnostic interview examination End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)-related services Neurobehavioral status examination For ESRD-related services, at least one face-to-face, hands on visit (not telehealth) must be furnished each month to examine the vascular access site by a physician, NP, PA, or CNS. ( New Trends in telemedicine Trends observed nationally include: using telemedicine in correctional facilities and home health care settings, can significantly reduce the time and costs of patient transportation; providing additional services to rural area linking physicians together more efficiently linking hospitals and schools together to improve care and widespread The benefits With a growing population and healthcare on the rise many public and private medical providers have seen a cost reduction with the use of telemedicine and patients have benefited from the technology in telemedicine. Insurance providers are paying for less hospital in patient days because the patient can be monitored from a distance. The patients are able to communicate with a nurse or physician at home through phone, video, or Bluetooth monitoring. Telemedicine allows more freedom to the patient to feel less restricted to home visits, they have access to some providers 24 hours a day and it cuts down on their travel time to medical visits. The patients family has also displayed satisfaction from the use of telemedicine because its less strenuous on their travel time and loss of work days. Another benefit of telemedicine provides an outreach to rural areas to be included in clinical trial studies and procedures. The providers have also benefited because they are able to receive real t ime feedback from other professionals that are able to transmitted medical information quickly, decreased travel time, and continued patient education and communication. Issues that need to be addressed Education regarding telemedicine and its usage. There are concerns that many do not know that he services exist. Cost and evaluation of the services. Will the cost for reimbursement be lower because there is no face to face contact? How will the affects of technology increase cost? Liability and malpractice issues. Out of state practices of medical professionals crossing their licensed boundaries. How will they be regulated and which state laws and rules will they be governed under? Security is always a concern regarding information sent via phone and internet lines. Can medical information be protected properly and the doctors will be held liable for the misappropriation of a patients medical information. Although there are HIPPA laws regarding patients privacy according to ORTCC its much more difficult to guarantee confidentiality because several individuals outside the traditional medical team. The transmission procedure requires technical staff at both ends. In small communities, it is possible that the patient knows the nonmedical personnel socially, compounding the sense of loss of privacy. Thus, the nature of the doctor patient relationship changes dramatically with telemedicine, challenging traditional concepts of privacy and confidentiality. ( Conclusion With technology making waves telemedicine has been able to grow through leaps and bounds allowing those that are limited and restricted to receive the medical attention of medical professionals. Physician has gain quicker access to other professionals without sitting face to face, digital images, and audio files of heartbeats and fetal movements. The privacy, protection, reimbursement, malpractice, and governing laws are still a concern but the efficiency of communication to provide medical care is needed.

Monday, August 19, 2019

love in the time of cholera :: essays research papers fc

Black Death THE BLACK DEATH During the fourteenth century a horrible plague spread across Asia, Europe, and Great Britain. This plague is referred to as the black death. Many people are not quite sure why the disease was given the name. The most popular reason why it might be called the black death is because it left purplish, blackish blotches on the bodies of the sick. â€Å"But if the name of the epidemic had been derived primarily from the appearance of its victims, one would have expected it to have been used at the time. Of this there is no evidence.†(Zeiger 17). Step by step, I am going to take you on the journey the black death took, from where it started, what it did, and when it ended. Bacillus yersinia pestis is the bacteria that lived in the blood streams of medieval rats and their fleas. Some time in the late 1340’s the bacteria made its way from rats to warm blooded mammals like humans. Due to earthquakes and other environmental occurrences, medieval rats were forced to cross the paths of humans. They first got on board of ships at ports, then headed to cities where they spread the disease. It was not the rats that spread the disease, but it was their fleas that bit humans and infected them. There was three forms of the plague; bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemia. Each form had different symptoms. â€Å"The most common form, called bubonic, is characterized by the formation of egg-sized swellings at the site of the flea bite, usually located in the armpits, groin, or neck.†(Wark). Which ever form someone contracted they died a disgusting death within days. Their whole body would get covered with nasty blotches of blood under their skin, and any fluid excreted from their body contained an unbearable stench. Florence, Italy was a very hard hit area because it was located right on the Arno River where ships would dock to import and export goods. It was estimated that between 45,000 and 65,000 Florentines died from the plague. â€Å"New cemet eries had to be consecrated quickly to receive all the dead bodies.†(Carmichael 110). With so many people dieing, some tried to write their friends from other countries and warn them with what to look for. Others tried out running the it when it turns out all they were doing was spreading it. After conquering Florence, the plague moved towards England where it killed off fifty percent of the population in London.

Comparison of Sound of Waves and Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea :: comparison compare contrast essays

Comparison of Sound of Waves and Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea There are many similarities between Yukio Mishima's â€Å"The Sound of Waves" and â€Å"The Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea,† but there are also some important differences. The endings of the two novels seem to oppose each other, however some of the imagery and characters personalities in the novels make them very similar. In â€Å"Sailor,† one of the main characters is named Ryuji. He is a sailor, and later a father, and plays a central role in the novel. In â€Å"Waves,† Ryuji is used as the name for a character again. However, this Ryuji is not seen often in the action -- he is instead a medium through which the two main characters are forced to communicate. The Ryuji in â€Å"Waves† is also a young boy, while in â€Å"Sailor† he is a weathered man. In both novels, the Westernization of Japan is used as a motif. In â€Å"Sailor,†Fusako is the proprietress of an import shop and her home and lifestyle are both very Western. This Westernization is something that would lead to the eventual downfall of Ryuji. In â€Å"Waves,† Churiko, a more western-thinking, college-educated girl, is the character that creates the problems which must be overcome. It seems that Mishima is trying to communicate to the readers that Westernization is not a good thing for Japan. In r eal life, we know that Mishima did think this was true. He would commit ritual suicide for his beliefs about the emperor. The sea is of course of central importance in both novels. Surprisingly though, the two novels do not share the same view of the ever-changing force. In â€Å"Sailor,† Ryuji describes the sea as, â€Å"another kind of prison.(16)† In â€Å"Waves†, Shinji, the main character, feels surprisingly free when he first ventures onto the sea: â€Å" ‘I'm free!’ he shouted in his heart. This was the first time he had realized there could be such a strange sort of freedom as this.(150)† Another contrast between the two books deals with the ending. In â€Å"Sailor,† it is the fulfillment of love that causes the death of Ryuji, the heroic seaman. When Ryuji finds Fusako he stops his work as a man of the sea and chooses to work in her store to make her happy. In â€Å"Waves,† the young lovebirds are not destroyed by the s ea as Ryuji was, they are united by it. Comparison of Sound of Waves and Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea :: comparison compare contrast essays Comparison of Sound of Waves and Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea There are many similarities between Yukio Mishima's â€Å"The Sound of Waves" and â€Å"The Sailor Who Fell From Grace with the Sea,† but there are also some important differences. The endings of the two novels seem to oppose each other, however some of the imagery and characters personalities in the novels make them very similar. In â€Å"Sailor,† one of the main characters is named Ryuji. He is a sailor, and later a father, and plays a central role in the novel. In â€Å"Waves,† Ryuji is used as the name for a character again. However, this Ryuji is not seen often in the action -- he is instead a medium through which the two main characters are forced to communicate. The Ryuji in â€Å"Waves† is also a young boy, while in â€Å"Sailor† he is a weathered man. In both novels, the Westernization of Japan is used as a motif. In â€Å"Sailor,†Fusako is the proprietress of an import shop and her home and lifestyle are both very Western. This Westernization is something that would lead to the eventual downfall of Ryuji. In â€Å"Waves,† Churiko, a more western-thinking, college-educated girl, is the character that creates the problems which must be overcome. It seems that Mishima is trying to communicate to the readers that Westernization is not a good thing for Japan. In r eal life, we know that Mishima did think this was true. He would commit ritual suicide for his beliefs about the emperor. The sea is of course of central importance in both novels. Surprisingly though, the two novels do not share the same view of the ever-changing force. In â€Å"Sailor,† Ryuji describes the sea as, â€Å"another kind of prison.(16)† In â€Å"Waves†, Shinji, the main character, feels surprisingly free when he first ventures onto the sea: â€Å" ‘I'm free!’ he shouted in his heart. This was the first time he had realized there could be such a strange sort of freedom as this.(150)† Another contrast between the two books deals with the ending. In â€Å"Sailor,† it is the fulfillment of love that causes the death of Ryuji, the heroic seaman. When Ryuji finds Fusako he stops his work as a man of the sea and chooses to work in her store to make her happy. In â€Å"Waves,† the young lovebirds are not destroyed by the s ea as Ryuji was, they are united by it.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Volpone, by Ben Jonson :: Free Essay Writer

Consider the end of the play, the lack of resolution in the Bonario - Celia relationship, the class based difference in the severity of Volpone and Mosca`s punishments, the situation in which Corbaccio, Voltore and Corvino are left. Do you find the ending just and in structure or are the unresolved situations disturbing? In the epistle of the play Ben Jonson states â€Å"it being the office of a comic poet to imitate justice.† It can be said that this is shown in the ending and that it is just and in structure as all the characters are punished in some way for their avarice and the â€Å"innocent† characters Bonario and Celia who in a way provide a contrast to the immoral selfishness, are set free and Celia is given back with three times her dowry money to her father. However there are unresolved issues left at the end of the play concerning these characters. One point of view would be that Celia and Bonario were secondary characters in the play used as virtuous characters to provide a distinction between the corruption and greed of Volpone. Mosca, Corvino, Corbaccio and Voltore, consequently making the problems concerning them as unimportant in context with the punishment or â€Å"justice† served by Jonson to Volpone. But then it is important to bear in mind that as these two ch aracters were so inherently good-natured that the reputation of them and lack of resolution can be regarded as disturbing. Another disturbing injustice can be viewed as the class based difference Mosca and Volpone`s punishments. Volpone is sent to â€Å"Thou art to lie in prison, cramped with irons, till thou be`st sick and lame indeed.† As he is â€Å"By blood, and rank a gentleman.† And is sent to the Hospital of the Incurables. Mosca, â€Å"Being a fellow of no birth, or blood.† Is sentenced to â€Å" first thou be whipped; Then live perpetual prisoner in our gallies.† This inequity can be seen as being based on the fact that Mosca is a parasite, in metaphorical terms a flesh fly who feeds of others: the lowest of the low. However, when one of the avocatore thought Mosca had inherited the money therefore moving up in status, as a clarissimo he had described Mosca as â€Å"A proper man! And were Volpone dead. A fit match for my daughter.† And is called a â€Å"gentleman.† This shows how differences in class make a difference for how the characters are treated i n punishment.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Three Changes of My Old School

I last went to the High School of Science & Technology. One of the changes they have made is the reinforcement of rules, having more safety within the students. Another change is the organization by providing counselors for specific and newly created departments. Also they are providing more time to students specially seniors who have planned to go to college. One of the changes they have made is the reinforcement of rules, they been having more safety within the students.Before I left there were rules nut they were never reinforce as much as this new year because they have had difficult situations in the past. After the past situations one of the ways they reinforce the rules is by giving out warnings to students the first time they commit an offense. If the students behavior continues they would have meetings with parents and counselors which helps a lot because they can work out any kind of problem they student is having. Because of this meeting students can get help for them, as well it helps teachers and other student s to concentrate better in their classes.Another change they made is the organization by providing counselors for specific and newly created departments. The school created a group for students who have lost family members or close friends. They used to do it once a month and every time people would go they would express themselves but there was lack of organization with the stuff they were going to be discussed during the meeting. This year they have prevented themselves with this situation when they see that students are going out of topic they stop and come back to what is supposed to be discussing during the meeting.Now meetings go in session every other week and they do two sections a day this way they divide the students in two groups and have a little more time for each one. Finally they are providing more time to students specially seniors who have planned to go to college. Many students that graduated last year had problems with coun selors because they would never have the time to meet with students and help them out with the preparation of college.Also applications to college were being sent late and some students could not get into the college they wanted. This year they are trying to keep on time applications for college and scholarships that way students won’t get frustrated and just looking to be successful in life. In summary reinforcing the rules, having better organization, and providing more time to students is a good beginning of a better school. These changes are the most important things that are outstanding in order to have a successful school.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Essay on Charlie Chaplin

CHARLIE CHAPLIN ESSAY INTRODUCTION When I decided to do my research on Charlie Chaplin, I thought that it would have been quite straightforward; my plan was to introduce his life and his career, finishing off with his accomplishments. However, as my research progressed, I came to realise that Charlie Chaplin is a man who cannot be put into a few words. My research opens up (brought me into) a whole new dimension of his intriguing life thus drawing me into his world. Hence, I became more and more interested in discovering the man behind the name. Therefore, I shall try my best to glorify this human being and talented actor who was adored throughout the ages. My presentation starts with a short / brief biography of Charlie Chaplin. Then, I will continue by describing his acting career which will later build up to the main characters that he interpreted. Finally, I will present to you the wonders of his great film: â€Å"The Great Dictator†. WHO WAS HE? Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on the 16th of April 1889 in East Street, Walworth, England. His parents, both known music hall entertainers in England, divorced when he was young (around 1891). He stayed little in contact with his father. His father did not give much child support payments to his family. It was therefore up to his mother to financially support his older half-brother Sydney, Charlie Chapin and herself. Thus, he stayed quite attached to his mother. Without a father figure, he saw in his mother her determination and strength to carry on and not giving up on them by bringing them. On the other hand, his older half-brother Sydney proved to be a brother of a kind. He would be to thank later in life because he partly contributed to the early successes of Charlie Chaplin. There was a point when his mother’s willpower crumbled, she was sent into an asylum. Sydney and Charlie were both sent to Lambeth Union Workhouse (a place where abandoned children and orphans were sent) in 1896. Charlie Chaplin was then just aged seven. His mother came out of the asylum only to be admitted again a few years later. During this time, he went to live with his father and his step-mother but he preferred to live by himself, hiding during the day to avoid going to school and performing in musicals at night. At the age of ten, barely knowing how to read or write, he joined a group of clog dancers; this is one of the first signs showing that he was destined to continue in the artistic field. Indeed, within a few years Charlie would become one of the most popular child actors in England. As a performer on stage, at each time it would take a few months for Chaplin to conquer hundreds of spectators. However, it was when he went back to Vaudeville acting (energetic multi-act theatre) that he discovered his talent for comic pantomime. For a few years, he would continue performing in Vaudeville. Then at the age of twenty, Charlie Chaplin went to the United States and performed with Frederich Karno, whom Sydney was working with and introduced Chaplin to Karno. He would soon be warmly welcomed by the American audience. There he started his career as the most famous comedian that ever lived. CHARLIE CHAPLIN’S ACTING CAREER At the age of ten he started performing in musicals. At the age of 24, he became worldwide famous. In 1917, he began to become, thanks to his new found way of expression, the most famous comedian that the world has ever known. His films became more and more witty, vifs et apparemment desinvolte et de plus en plus travailles. Charlie Chaplin wanted to explore and extend his talent of comic. He always wanted to do more, not only to please the public but also to convey the good heartedness of mankind – which was manifested in films like â€Å"City of Lights†, where love is the main subject of the film. He felt the need to talk about the dehumanisation of work in the film â€Å"Modern Times† and even more of the huge menace of fascism incarnated by the monster which has many curious resemblances to Chaplin. But he had this irresistible need to be funny and to please the public and to be loved by the public by using the simplest of emotions whichwas by talking from the heart. Charlie Chaplin is probably the most accomplished show business man during his time. He was multi-talented – he was a good actor and also a successful director, script-writer and producer. Active and observant as he was, he portrayed his perception on things in his films. He remained true to his views on real life situations but never forgetting to add humour as he knew that life is never all black or all white. Throughout his career, though he interpreted several characters, Charlie Chaplin never abandoned the famous character that brought him to fame: the character of â€Å"Tramp†. The â€Å"Tramp† character made him rich and it was inspired by his poverty-stricken childhood- a man-child always hoping for the better. Ironically, he became a rich man by imitating the poorest of men. Rich as he was, he could have rejected his childhood, however, he remembered where grew up as a child: East Street, Walworth, England. Even his famous â€Å"bow-legged dance-walk†, he claims was inspired when he was in the pub ‘The Queens Head’ owned by his uncle and Charlie Chaplin saw Rummy Binks, an old waiter, do a â€Å"duck walk†. He would constantly film situations as he would observe in real life people can relate with, for example in â€Å"The Modern Times† he filmed in a factory and displayed his view of the Marxist concept of the dehumanisation effect of work.. Sound did not exist at the time of Chaplin but the actions say it all- because all is in the subtlety, all is mild, ingeniously suggested and not exaggerated. * In 1898, at the age of 9 years old, Charlie Chaplin had his first taste of show business appearing in a clog dancing musical produced by a stage company called â€Å"Eight Lancashire Lads†. In 1910, Chaplin arrived in the United States and was chosen by Mack Sennett to be in a Keystone Films silent comedy series. During this time, Chaplin created the role of the â€Å"Tramp. † It was when he left Mack Sennett to work at Essanay Studios in 1914 that he really developed the character of â€Å"The Tramp†. By the time he signed a contract with National Films in 1918, he was an experienced and well-appreciated actor who knew his value as an actor. Therefore he was not shy to ask $1,000,000 for a film. Although, he had many projects in his mind however, he needed money to invest in his ideas and bring them to the screen. Hence, at 28 years old, Charles Spencer Chaplin becomes a millionaire and his contract with the First National gave him the control and rights to his films. The United Artists was formed in 1918 with actors Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and director D. W Griffith. Their films would become their properties. Controversy would occur when the First World War starts and he does not join to fight for his country. Instead he makes a film â€Å"The Bond† in 1918 to show his support for the soldiers at war. In â€Å"Shoulder Arms† (1918), it is a film about the First World War and it is one of the most popular films of the First World War. He manages to demonstrate the horror and the ridiculousness of the war. In 1921, he notices Jack Coogan in a vaudeville act. He stars with Jackie in â€Å"The Kid†, †¦ Chaplin and Jackie Coogan in â€Å"The Kid† (1921) â€Å"The Modern Times† (1936) introduces a concept Marxist- man is reduced to something underneath him, he is just an animal fed by the machine. There is no doubt that Charlie Chaplin is a left-wing man. â€Å"Modern Times† (1936) and the Eating Machine Scene depicts the dehumanising effect of mechanization. â€Å"The Great Dictator† released in 1940 marked a new turn in terms of Chaplin’s working methods- it was to be his first talking film, and for the first time he was to begin a picture with a complete script. This satiric film on fascism came out whilst the world was devastated by two major wars: the First World War and the beginning second world war. For this reason, Chaplin's political perspective on right-wing dictatorship was not entirely accepted by the public and it led the United States government to believe that he was a communist and when asked if he was a Jew he answered admirably that â€Å"I do not have the chance to be one†. He does not deny that he is not Jewish, he thought that it would be an implicit suggestion that he was a supporter of anti-Semitism. MAIN CHARACTERS Throughout his acting career, Charlie Chaplin has interpreted quite a few characters, of which I will talk about two of them in particular. The first character is Charlie Chaplin’s principal personage which he calls â€Å"The Tramp clown† – a beggar. He displays this image in the way that he is attired: his black hair, a tight coat, oversized pants, pointed shoes, a bowler hat, bamboo cane, dark eyebrows and his signature square moustache. As I said before, Charlie Chaplin relates very well with real life situations. The gradual building up of this character can be linked to different historical situations; one of them could be the Great Depression. Historically, the Great Depression in the 1920s left the rich and fortunate in a terrible state, they were left with little dignity, like a tramp, a â€Å"vagrant with refined manners of a gentleman†. Charlie Chaplin’s original way of expressing and attempt to find the funny side in situations that are not usually made fun of; make him a true comedic icon. He does not need words to express himself as the audience can fill the words in by themselves. A quote by Charlie Chaplin personifies his character: â€Å"I remain just one thing, and one thing only — and that is a clown. It places me on a far higher plane than any politician. † The second popular character is Adenoid Hynkel. He is the dictator of Tomania in the film â€Å"The Great Dictator†. He is one of the few to have openly criticised Adolf Hitler through the interpretation of Adenoid Hynkel. During that period of the two world wars millions of people followed Adolf Hitler and there were also people who were scared of Adolf Hitler, it made those who were scared how stupid it was to be scared of this â€Å"monster ridiculous, venomous, pathetic who wants total control of the world. When the film came out, people immediately saw the resemblance between Adenoid Hynkel (Charlie Chaplin) and Adolf Hitler. Chaplin single-handedly reduced the monster into a ridiculous, venomous, pathetic clown. Here, Charlie Chaplin was adventurous and tried to find humour in a delicate situation: the two World Wars. For his accent he related to his past in vaudeville acting. The â€Å"Great Dictator† freed people spiritually. Charlie sent a video of â€Å"The Great Dictator† to the dictator himself. This shows us that he is always up for new challenges in the films that he creates. UNDOUBTEDLY, ONE OF CHARLIE CHAPLIN’S MOST FAMOUS FILMS: THE GREAT DICTATOR I have chosen to talk about one of Charlie Chaplin’s famous films â€Å"The Great Dictator† because of the story that lies behind it. â€Å"The Great Dictator† was a controversial film directed by and starred Charlie Chaplin. It was the first true talking picture, released on the 15th of October 1940. It is unique for its fearless criticism of Hitler and Nazism and for its portrayal of the plight of Jews in Europe. The people’s appreciation and the media’s appreciation for the film shows in its nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture and Best Actor. When interviewed about this film, Charlie Chaplin said: â€Å"Half-way through making â€Å"The Great Dictator† I began receiving alarming messages from the United Artists (†¦ ) but I was determined to go ahead for Hitler must be laughed at. † In â€Å"The Great Dictator† the physical resemblance between Charlie Chaplin and Hitler, especially with their square moustaches is astounding. Another interesting fact was that both were born just 4 days apart and grew up in relative poverty. Charlie Chaplin in â€Å"The Great Dictator†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Adolf Hitler in a Nazi Parade †¦ CONCLUSION THE IMPACT HE MADE TO THE WORLD AND HIS CONTRIBUTION TO THE SOCIETY AND THE ART Charlie Chaplin was a man who dimpled millions of cheeks in the early 1900's. Despite the fact that they were silent films in black and white, he put a lot of color into everyone's life. He managed to work his magic and free minds as well as speak the minds of ordinary people, whether it is about the horrors of life as a soldier in the two world wars or the dehumanization of work or about the wonderful sensations of love in â€Å"City of Lights†. He was not afraid to clearly show what he believed in. His excellent sense of narration and subordinating the story makes him a great master of pictures. Charlie Chaplin marks me as a man who despite of great disadvantages faced when he was young, managed to transform the â€Å"nightmarish† situations that he experienced in silent comedy. He was a comedic icon of a kind. I feel that Charlie Chaplin is one of the most interesting people I have researched about. Coming from rags, he finally became a person whom everyone knows and loves. Such an impact he has made across the world that the Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom knighted him as Sir Charlie Chaplin in 1975. He died at the age of eighty-eight years old on the 25th of December 1977. BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites ?http://www. clown-ministry. com/History/Charlie-Chaplin. html ?http://www. csse. monash. edu. au/~pringle/silent/chaplin/aaronhale. html ?http://www. east-buc. k12. ia. us/00_01/100/ms/ms. htm Photos ?http://www. images. google. co. uk ?http://www. csse. monash. edu. au/~pringle/silent/chaplin/aaronhale. html ?http://www. east-buc. k12. ia. us/00_01/100/ms/ms. htm ?http://www. vauxhallsociety. org. uk/Chaplin. html ?http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Charlie_Chaplin

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Miniature Adults

Journal 2 Describe a situation or several situations you've encounters that reflect the fact that children are not miniature adults. They think differently, see the world differently, and live by different morals and ethical principles than adults. What are some ways of thinking and acting that are simple for adults but not so simple for children A situation that i have encountered was one day when i was playing with my three year old brother while we was listening to some music on the radio.All of sudden a song came on the radio and he started singing the entire song. At first i was extremely shock because i could not believe he knew every lyric to the song and he was only three years old. When the song finish i ask him how did he know the song the whole song he said he taught his self. I ask him could he count to twenty for me and he told me he could only count to five. So i told him if he knew all the lyrics to that song on the radio he should know how to count to twenty or farthe r. Related essay: Explain the Post 16 Options For Young People and AdultsI figured out when it comes to some things it easier for him to learn rather than other things. I also have to remeber that they think differently form us so what might seem to easy to learn for us might not be as easy for children to learn it. It just all really depends on the childrens ages and their stage of development. One way of thinking that is simple for adults but not so simple for children would be the example Piaget wrote about the grasp object permanance.Piaget argue that children must learn that objects exists even when the objects are not in the child's physical presence. For an example if you cover a child's toy the child may not remove because the would think it was automatically gone. After the age of two children often understand that objects still exist even if the can not see them. They now that if you try to cover up something or hide it still exists some where. They usually start trying to use symbols to represent these things in their minds so that they can still think about them.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Channel Conflict Analysis of Schwinn Essay

With Schwinn’s recent expansion into many large-scale retail stores (i. e. Wal-Mart, Toys-R-Us, Target, etc. ), they began to shift into a dual channel marketing strategy. Often times, if not handled properly, this type of approach can result in significant problems for some or all of the distribution channel partners. Fortunately for Schwinn however, they were able to make many critical decisions which ensured that each of the partners’ distinct interests was narrowly aligned with their own. This proactive plan not only motivated many of their smaller independent bicycle dealers to continue carrying their products but it also allowed Schwinn to effectively reach a much larger segment of their target market. By closely analyzing this case, we can learn many valuable lessons regarding the overall importance of strong channel management. Product differentiation was one of the primary ways that Schwinn managed to avoid channel conflict. Schwinn segmented the market and delivered to the different segments of the market through different channels. The product line delivered through the mass market channel consisted of completely different bicycles than those found at the independent bicycle dealers. This segmentation reduced the likelihood of conflict between the two channels, since the two product lines were targeted at segments with little to no crossover. Additionally, Schwinn introduced products like the Sting Ray which had nostalgic appeal and stretched beyond the traditional customer base of the independent bicycle dealers. These types of bicycles provided them with a unique product and furthermore a healthy margin to bolster profits. By maintaining distinct product lines for their two channels, Schwinn was able to minimize multi-channel conflict. The key to motivating channel members is to provide value and benefits to each partner in order to align interests and thus achieve the ultimate goal: satisfy the customer’s needs. Schwinn used both push and pull strategies effectively. By offering a relatively higher margin level than other high-end manufacturers catering to independent bicycle dealers, they were able to restore the confidence and interest of their long term retailers in spite of going for a dual channel strategy. Moreover, as mentioned in the article, unlike most companies in the industry, there was no complicated loyalty formula required to get the best prices from Schwinn. In addition, Schwinn did not require specific pre-order sales in order to carry their products. Instead, suppliers were granted flexible purchasing options so they did not have to unnecessarily stock inventories during their off-seasons (i. e. winter months in cold climates). This push strategy not only reduced the administrative cost of the retailers, but also improved the inventory turnover and ultimately the retailers’ bottom line. Conversely, Schwinn was also able to simultaneously create a pull strategy after they utilized the extensive media exposure of products, such as the Sting Ray, to increase the brand recognition among customers thus drawing them to the independent bicycle dealers. In addition to this, the specialty storeowners found significant profits lying in the repairing of these bikes and selling of parts/accessories. This proved to be a great factor for specialty bike owners to remain in business while selling Schwinn. They had a clear edge over other big retailers like Wal-Mart who did not provide any after sales service to its customers. Because they were making money by servicing the bikes sold at the mass market stores, the independent bicycle dealers were more tolerant of losing some sales on the edge of their segment to Wal-Mart, Target, Toys-R-Us, etc. Schwinn has done a good job of heading off any channel conflict by keeping the incentives aligned for its two main distribution channels. By expanding its product line into major retailers, the company has been able to target a new segment of casual bike riders. With Schwinn’s new line of entry-level bikes, big-box stores can satisfy the needs of casual bike riders by offering a large selection of affordable bikes at convenient locations. Meanwhile, Schwinn still provides a number of incentives to local bike shops, which form the company’s other main distribution channel. These shops still profit from service and repair, which large retailers do not offer. Additionally, some of Schwinn’s higher-end models are exclusively available in bike shops. Finally, Schwinn is flexible with its inventory requirements and offers good margins. By offering different incentives to each of its distribution channels, Schwinn has been able to target more customers while also keeping its retailers happy.